Predictors of the degree of drug treatment coverage for injection drug users in 94 metropolitan areas in the United States of America

National Development and Research Institutes, New York, NY 10010, USA.
The International journal on drug policy (Impact Factor: 2.54). 01/2008; 18(6):475-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.10.004
Source: PubMed


A prior study concluded that drug treatment coverage, defined as the percentage of injection drug users in drug treatment, varied from 1 percent to 39 percent (median 9 percent) in 96 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. Here, we determine which metropolitan area characteristics are associated with drug treatment coverage.
We conducted secondary analysis of official data, including the number of injection drug users in treatment and other variables, for 94 large US MSAs. We estimated the number of injection drug users in these metropolitan areas using previously described methods. We used lagged cross-sectional analyses where the independent variables, chosen on the basis of a Theory of Community Action, preceded the dependent variable (drug treatment coverage) in time. Predictors were determined using ordinary least squares multiple regression and confirmed with robust regression.
Independent predictors of higher drug treatment coverage for injectors were: presence of organisations that support treatment (unstandardized beta=1.64; 95 percent CI .59 to 2.69); education expenditures per capita in the MSA (unstandardized beta=.12; 95 percent CI -.34 to 2.69); lower percentage of drug users in treatment who are non-injection drug users (unstandardized beta=-0.18; 95 percent CI -0.24 to -0.12); higher percentage of the population who are non-Hispanic White (unstandardized beta=.14; 95 percent CI .08 to .20); lower per capita long-term debt of governments in the metropolitan area (unstandardized beta=-0.93; 95 percent CI -1.51 to -0.35).
In conditions of scarce treatment coverage for drug injectors, an indicator of epidemiologic need (the per capita extent of AIDS among injection drug users) does not predict treatment coverage, and competition for treatment slots by non-injectors may reduce injectors' access to treatment. Metropolitan finances limit treatment coverage. Political variables (racial structures, the presence of organisations that support drug treatment, and budget priorities) may be important determinants of treatment coverage for injectors. Although confidence in these results would be higher if we had used a longitudinal design, these results suggest that further research and action that address structural, political, and other barriers to treatment expansion are sorely needed.

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    • "The current study is unique because it relies on recent data from 2011 and a comprehensive conceptualization of migrant status that includes Mexicans experiencing the United States as travellers. Although policies governing illicit drug use in the United States differ across regions, these policies for the most part mandate abstinence from the majority of illicit drugs (Friedman et al., 2007). This is in contrast with policies in Mexico, which generally endorse nonproblematic use (Comisión Nacional contra las Adicciones, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and US migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N=16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans' migrant status - (1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals) - featured analysis of variance and Chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR=2.453, 95% CI=1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=2.061, 95% CI=1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR=0.187, 95% CI=0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=0.153, 95% CI=0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours.
    The International journal on drug policy 04/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.04.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Opioid substitution therapy, such as methadone and buprenorphine, has documented effectiveness in treating opioid dependence (Connock et al., 2007; Mattick et al., 2008). Access to specially licensed and highly structured methadone maintenance programs, however, is limited, leaving 80–85% of the opioid-dependent population untreated (Friedman et al., 2007). The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 and the approval of buprenorphine in 2002 allowed certified physicians to prescribe buprenorphine in primary and specialty care settings, making opioid maintenance treatment more available and easier to access (Altice et al., 2006; Basu et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Few studies have examined real-world effectiveness of integrated buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) programs in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Methods: Opioid dependent patients (N=266) inducted on buprenorphine between July 2007 and December 2008 were retrospectively assessed at Connecticut's largest FQHC network. Six-month BMT retention and opioid-free time were collected longitudinally from electronic health records; 136 (51.1%) of patients were followed for at least 12 months. Results: Participants had a mean age of 40.1 years, were primarily male (69.2%) and treated by family practitioners (70.3%). Co-morbidity included HCV infection (59.8%), mood disorders (71.8%) and concomitant cocaine use (59%). Retention on BMT was 56.8% at 6 months and 61.6% at 12 months for the subset observed over 1 year. Not being retained on BMT at 12 months was associated with cocaine use (AOR=2.18; 95% CI=1.35-3.50) while prescription of psychiatric medication (AOR=0.36; 95% CI 0.20-0.62) and receiving on-site substance abuse counseling (AOR=0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.59) improved retention. Two thirds of the participants experienced at least one BMT gap of 2 or more weeks with a mean gap length of 116.4 days. Conclusions: Integrating BMT in this large FQHC network resulted in retention rates similarly reported in clinical trials and emphasizes the need for providing substance abuse counseling and screening for and treating psychiatric comorbidity.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2013; 131(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.008 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "In this study we extend the scope of an earlier cross-sectional study on treatment coverage [39] to include longitudinal data, and we describe change in drug treatment coverage for IDUs during 1993-2002 in 90 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). [NOTE: This study considers data collected prior to the availability of buprenorphine and naltrexone in the U.S.] Research on treatment coverage can provide insight to public policy planners, treatment providers and harm reduction activists regarding geographic areas in need of drug treatment expansion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for HIV, hepatitis, overdose and other harms. Greater drug treatment availability has been shown to reduce these harms among IDUs. Yet, little is known about changes in drug treatment availability for IDUs in the U.S. This paper investigates change in drug treatment coverage for IDUs in 90 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1993-2002. We define treatment coverage as the percent of IDUs who are in treatment. The number of IDUs in drug treatment is calculated from treatment entry data and treatment census data acquired from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration, divided by our estimated number of IDUs in each MSA. Treatment coverage was low in 1993 (mean 6.7%; median 6.0%) and only increased to a mean of 8.3% and median of 8.0% coverage in 2002. Although some MSAs experienced increases in treatment coverage over time, overall levels of coverage were low. The persistence of low drug treatment coverage for IDUs represents a failure by the U.S. health care system to prevent avoidable harms and unnecessary deaths in this population. Policy makers should expand drug treatment for IDUs to reduce blood-borne infections and community harms associated with untreated injection drug use.
    Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 09/2010; 5(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-5-23 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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