Adiponectin and inflammation: Consensus and controversy
ABSTRACT Circulating levels of adiponectin decrease with increasing visceral obesity and are lower in patients with type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease compared with controls matched by body mass index. Several reports demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin. Because increased adipose tissue is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and proinflammatory factors inhibit adiponectin production, the current hypothesis states that chronic inflammation associated with visceral obesity inhibits production of adiponectin, perpetuating inflammation. The negative correlation between adiponectin and markers of inflammation in the aforementioned conditions supports this hypothesis. In contrast with disorders typically associated with excess adiposity and positive energy balance, adiponectin levels are elevated--rather than decreased--in classic chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases that are unrelated to increased adipose tissue, such as rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. In these patients, adiponectin levels positively--rather than negatively--correlate with inflammatory markers. Furthermore, proinflammatory effects of adiponectin have been reported in tissues such as joint synovium and colonic epithelium. Thus, adiponectin is regulated in the opposite direction and may exert differential functions in classic versus obesity-associated inflammatory conditions. This article discusses this apparent paradox and presents possible alternative and/or complementary explanations.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) show a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Although the underlying pathogenesis is still unknown, endothelial dysfunction, induced by inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The aim of this study was to assess whether OSAHS is associated with activation of the inflammatory cytokine system in patients with ED compared to the matched OSAHS patients with normal sexual function. Thirty-one patients with severe OSAHS and ED were included. Fifteen patients with severe OSAHS and without ED served as controls. Serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and adiponectin were measured after the diagnostic polysomnography. We found that hsCRP levels were significantly elevated in OSAHS patients with ED compared to controls. Similarly, TNF-a levels, IL-6, and IL-8 were elevated in OSAHS patients with ED compared to controls. Serum adiponectin levels were lower in OSAHS-ED patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The presence of ED in patients with severe OSAHS is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers, underlining a possible involvement of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ED.Mediators of Inflammation 05/2014; 2014:568951. DOI:10.1155/2014/568951 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory mediators, including adipokines, have been studied in migraine pathophysiology; however, their role is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate adiponectin (ADP) and its association with clinical parameters and psychiatric comorbidities in migraine patients compared with controls. This was a cross sectional study including migraine patients and controls. Beck depression and anxiety inventories, Headache impact test, and Allodynia symptom checklist were recorded. Adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Sixty-eight migraine patients and sixty-five controls without headache were included. The ADP levels were significantly higher among patients with migraine (43.6±11.8 versus 36.6±9.7ng/mL, P<0.0001). Adiponectin levels were not correlated with depression and anxiety scores, as well as with migraine severity and allodynia scores. ADP levels were raised in migraine, independently of psychiatric comorbidities, migraine impact, and allodynia.Journal of the neurological sciences 04/2014; 342(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.04.035 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients' preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline (P = 0.01) and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (r = −0.438, P = 0.037), length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (r = −0.457, P = 0.025), and the inotropic score (r = −0.471, P = 0.02). Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels.10/2013; 2013:408680. DOI:10.1155/2013/408680