The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: Its molecular mechanisms of action

Noni Benefits Research Department, Tahitian Noni International Research Center, 737 East 1180 South, American Fork, UT 84003, USA. <>
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 03/2008; 115(3):502-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.023
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in vitro and in vivo in mice. In vitro, Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and Noni fruit juice concentrates (NFJC) (1, 5mg/mL) potently activate cannabinoid 2 (CB2), but inhibit cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in a concentration-dependant manner. In vivo, oral administration of TNJ ad libitum for 16 days decreased the production of IL-4, but increased the production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that noni modulates the immune system via activating of the CB2 receptors, and suppressing of the IL-4, but increasing the production of IFN-gamma cytokines. It may also exert beneficial immunomodulation effects in conditions involving inadequate immune responses.

370 Reads
  • Source
    • "A variety of potential health benefits have been reported for noni fruit juice [3]. These include immunomodulation [4] [5] and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo [6] [7] [8]. The antioxidant activity of noni juice was found to be associated with increased endurance in athletes [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.
    Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 11/2013; 2013(12):804504. DOI:10.1155/2013/804504 · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Traditionally, the fruits were used as food a treatment for and intestinal problems, while the leaves served for the treatment of wound infections, arthritis, swellings, and similar conditions [1, 2]. Recent research indicated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [3, 4]. During the last decade, noni, mostly marketed as a fermented juice, has become a widely traded food supplement worldwide, based on health claims related to some of its compounds, in particular flavonoids [5–7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013:208378. DOI:10.1155/2013/208378 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Noni fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension , and pain (Wang and Su, 2001; Wang et al., 2002, 2008). In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, liver-protective , anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects (Su et al., 2005; Deng et al., 2007; Pawlus and Kinghorn, 2007; Palu et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2008). In addition, Noni has also recently been reported to protect against scopolamine-induced and b-amyloid (25–35)-induced memory impairment in animals (Muralidharan et al., 2010; Pachauri et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of a standardized ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) fruit on impairment of memory, brain energy metabolism, and cholinergic function in intracerebral streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. STZ (0.5 mg/kg) was administered twice at an interval of 48 h. Noni (50 and 100 mg/kg, postoperatively) was administered for 21 days following STZ administration. Memory function was evaluated using Morris Water Maze and passive avoidance tests, and brain levels of cholinergic function, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were estimated. STZ caused memory impairment in Morris Water Maze and passive avoidance tests along with reduced brain levels of ATP, BDNF, and acetylcholine and increased acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Noni extract (100 mg/kg) prevented the STZ-induced memory impairment in both behavioral tests along with reduced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity, and increased brain levels of BDNF, acetylcholine, and ATP level. The study shows the beneficial effects of Noni fruit against STZ-induced memory impairment, which may be attributed to improved brain energy metabolism, cholinergic neurotransmission, BDNF, and antioxidative action.
    Behavioural pharmacology 08/2013; 24(4):307-19. DOI:10.1097/FBP.0b013e3283637a51 · 2.15 Impact Factor
Show more