Biomechanical evaluation of rotator cuff repairs in a sheep model: suture anchors using arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches compared with transosseous sutures using traditional modified Mason-Allen stitches.
ABSTRACT The optimal method for rotator cuff repair of the shoulder is not yet known. The aim of this study was to compare the time-dependent biomechanical properties of the traditional open transosseous suture technique and modified Mason-Allen stitches (group 1) versus the double-loaded suture anchors technique and so-called arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches (group 2) in rotator cuff repair.
Eighteen adult female sheep were randomized into two groups: in an open approach in which the released infraspinatus tendon was repaired with group 1, and with group 2. Animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, or 26 weeks; shoulders were harvested and magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Eight untreated contralateral shoulders served as controls. Tendons of 16 additional unpaired cadaver shoulder joints of adult female sheep were identically treated for analysis at time zero. In a biomechanical evaluation all specimens were loaded to failure at a constant displacement rate using a standard universal testing machine. The load-to-failure and stiffness of the healed bone-tendon interface were calculated.
Magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed cuff integrity in all cases, and no evidence of foreign body reaction to the anchors. Load-to-failure and stiffness data did not indicate any significant difference between the two treatment groups, neither at 6 weeks nor at 12 or 26 weeks. However, at time zero the group 2 had a higher load-to-failure in comparison to the group 1 (P<0.010), but there was no difference for the stiffness (P<0.121).
This in vivo study showed that, postoperatively, the group 2 technique provides superior stability and after healing would gain strength comparable to the group 1 technique.
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ABSTRACT: In the operative management of rotator cuff disease, comparable functional results have been reported after open or mini-open repair and arthroscopic fixation. Surgical repair aims to re-establish an anatomical configuration of the tendon-bone construct for restoring its mechanical performance. Single row repair is the most commonly used technique, but recently some authors have proposed to re-establish the rotator cuff footprint with 2 rows of suture anchors ("double row" repair). In regard to imaging assessment, at time zero double row repair results being more anatomic and allows for structurally sound restoration of the rotator cuff footprint. However, this does not seem to translate into superior clinical outcomes for the double row repair when evaluating all different sizes of rotator cuff tears as a whole. The scientific basis for recommending single or double row repair as preferred treatment for patients with rotator cuff tear is questionable, as minimal differences have been measured on clinical and functional rating scales.Sports medicine and arthroscopy review 12/2011; 19(4):342-7. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In rotator cuff repair, strong and long-lasting suturing techniques that do not require additional implants are needed. This study examines the ultimate load to failure and the Young's modulus at the suture-tendon interface for a novel single-loop knot stitch and double-loop knot stitch. These values are compared to those of the modified Mason-Allen stitch. Twenty-four infraspinatus muscles with tendons were dissected from porcine shoulders (twelve Goettingen minipigs). The preparations were randomly allocated to three groups of eight samples. Load-to-failure testing of the single-loop knot stitch, the double-loop knot stitch and the mMAS were performed using a Zwick 1446 universal testing machine (Zwick-Roell AG, Ulm, Germany). The highest ultimate load to failure for the three techniques occurred with the double-loop knot stitch with a median value of 382.2 N (range 291.8-454.2 N). These values were significantly higher than those of the single-loop knot stitch, which had a median value of 259.5 N (range 139.6-366.3 N) and the modified Mason-Allen stitch, which had a median value of 309.3 N (range 84.55-382.9 N). The values of the single-loop knot stitch and the modified Mason-Allen stitch did not differ significantly. Regarding the Young's modulus, no significant differences were found between the double-loop knot stitch with a median value of 496.02 N/mm² (range 400.4-572.6 N/mm²) and the modified Mason-Allen stitch with 498.5 N/mm² (range 375.5-749.2 N/mm²) with respect to the stiffness of the suture-tendon complex. The median value for the Young's modulus of the single-loop knot stitch of 392.1 N/mm² (range 285.7-510.6 N/mm²) was significantly lower than those of the double-loop knot stitch and modified Mason-Allen stitch. This in vitro animal study demonstrated that both the single-loop knot stitch and the double-loop knot stitch have excellent ultimate load-to-failure properties when used for rotator cuff repair. The introduced single-loop knot stitch and double-loop knot stitch offer an alternative to other common used stitch techniques in rotator cuff repair.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the initial fixation strength of bridging techniques compared to other suture techniques for rotator cuff repair using a biomechanical animal model, which incorporated pretesting of intact tendons. METHODS: Seventy-six fresh bovine shoulders were used for testing seven suture configurations including simple suture (SS), mattress suture (MS), Mason-Allen (MA), modified double row (mDR), SpeedBridge (SpB), SpeedBridge with medial fixation (mSpB), and double-mattress SutureBridge (dmSuB) techniques. Cyclic loading was performed with all intact bone-tendon complex before (pretest) and after repair of the tendon (main test) at the level of 10 and 180 N at 100 Hz with displacement-controlled ramps of ±33 mm/s. The pretest was stopped after 200 cycles. For the main test, the loading scheme was continued for a maximum of 500 cycles or until failure. RESULTS: The mean elongation of all 76 intact tendons measured at the pretest was 3.8 ± 0.6 mm (2.4-5.4 mm). No differences of gap formations at the 1st cycle were detected between SS, MS, MA, and mDR. SpB showed significant higher gap formations compared to all other suture techniques (p = 0.001). No significant differences were detected between mSpB and dmSuB, whereas both techniques were significant different when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, results showed that bridging techniques with medial fixations have superior initial repair strength compared to other suture techniques. Knowledge of initial fixation strength of rotator cuff repair techniques may be of informative value to the surgeon.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 02/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor