Dissemination of CDC, S Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates

Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, NY 10032, USA.
American journal of infection control (Impact Factor: 2.21). 12/2007; 35(10):666-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2006.10.006
Source: PubMed


The diffusion of national evidence-based practice guidelines and their impact on patient outcomes often go unmeasured.
Our objectives were to (1) evaluate implementation and compliance with clinical practices recommended in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hand Hygiene Guideline, (2) compare rates of health care-associated infections (HAI) before and after implementation of the Guideline recommendations, and (3) examine the patterns and correlates of changes in rates of HAI. We used pre- and post-Guideline implementation site visits and surveys in the setting of 40 US hospitals--members of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System--and measured HAI rates 1 year before and after publication of the CDC Guideline and used direct observation of hand hygiene compliance and Guideline implementation scores.
All study hospitals had changed their policies and procedures and provided products in compliance with Guideline recommendations; 89.8% of 1359 staff members surveyed anonymously reported that they were familiar with the Guideline. However, in 44.2% of the hospitals (19/40), there was no evidence of a multidisciplinary program to improve compliance. Hand hygiene rates remained low (mean, 56.6%). Rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were significantly lower in hospitals with higher rates of hand hygiene (P < .001). No impact of Guideline implementation or hand hygiene compliance on other HAI rates was identified. Other factors occurring over time could affect rates of HAI. Observed hand hygiene compliance rates were likely to overestimate rates in actual practice. The study may have been of too short duration to detect the impact of a practice guideline.
Wide dissemination of this Guideline was not sufficient to change practice. Only some hospitals had initiated multidisciplinary programs; practice change is unlikely without such multidisciplinary efforts and explicit administrative support.

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    • "The infection control measures requires proper education, improvements of guidelines and various technologies and introduction of new clinical guidelines.16 Systemic review have not however found an established link between use of hand hygiene products and reduction in nosocomial infections.17 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the risk factors and complications of puerperal sepsis. Methods: This was an observational prospective Cohort study conducted from January 2011 to December 2011 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh Pakistan. During this study period, all the women who delivered in this hospital or referred to this hospital within 42 days after delivery with puerperal pyrexia/sepsis diagnosed on clinical examination as well as with relevant investigations were included in the study. Women with other ailments like malaria, typhoid fever and postpartum eclampsia during the puerperal period were excluded. The subjects were registered on predesigned proforma after giving informed written consent. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: During this period there were 3316 obstetrical admission and out of these 129(3.89%) women had puerperal sepsis. Most of these women 84(65.11%) were aged 31 years and above, multiparous 101 (78.29%), and unbooked 98 (75.96%) cases. Common risk factors found were absent membranes in 108(83.72%) of the women, delivered or undelivered and mismanaged, referred cases 95(73.64%), are being delivered in this hospital 34(26.35%). Morbidities seen were septicemia in 35 (27.13%) cases, and disseminated intra vascular coagulation in 23(17.82%) cases, while 11 (8.52%) of the women died. Conclusion: Common risk factors were anaemia; suboptimal personal hygiene as well as improper sterilization which resulted in severe health hazards such as septicemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation as well as death.
    Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 07/2013; 29(4):972-6. DOI:10.12669/pjms.294.3389 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, implementation research is urgently needed given the demand for unified global schemes to improve patient safety and healthcare effectiveness. Production of guidelines, even if based on published evidence, do not necessarily change healthcare worker practice [52]. This may be due to the lack of knowledge about barriers and facilitators inherent in local contexts and multidimensional patterns. "
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    ABSTRACT: The implementation of evidence-based infection control practices is essential, yet challenging for healthcare institutions worldwide. Although acknowledged that implementation success varies with contextual factors, little is known regarding the most critical specific conditions within the complex cultural milieu of varying economic, political, and healthcare systems. Given the increasing reliance on unified global schemes to improve patient safety and healthcare effectiveness, research on this topic is needed and timely. The 'InDepth' work package of the European FP7 Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) consortium aims to assess barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) prevention in intensive care units (ICU) across several European countries. We use a qualitative case study approach in the ICUs of six purposefully selected acute care hospitals among the 15 participants in the PROHIBIT CRBSI intervention study. For sensitizing schemes we apply the theory of diffusion of innovation, published implementation frameworks, sensemaking, and new institutionalism. We conduct interviews with hospital health providers/agents at different organizational levels and ethnographic observations, and conduct rich artifact collection, and photography during two rounds of on-site visits, once before and once one year into the intervention. Data analysis is based on grounded theory. Given the challenge of different languages and cultures, we enlist the help of local interpreters, allot two days for site visits, and perform triangulation across multiple data sources.Qualitative measures of implementation success will consider the longitudinal interaction between the initiative and the institutional context. Quantitative outcomes on catheter-related bloodstream infections and performance indicators from another work package of the consortium will produce a final mixed-methods report. A mixed-methods study of this scale with longitudinal follow-up is unique in the field of infection control. It highlights the 'Why' and 'How' of best practice implementation, revealing key factors that determine success of a uniform intervention in the context of several varying cultural, economic, political, and medical systems across Europe. These new insights will guide future implementation of more tailored and hence more successful infection control programs. Trial number: PROHIBIT-241928 (FP7 reference number).
    Implementation Science 02/2013; 8(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-8-24 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "These have been the product of work done as part of the Global Patient Safety Challenge which targeted hand hygiene as a flagship campaign [24,35]. The effect of issuing new infection control guidelines specifically for promoting hand hygiene was evaluated across 40 hospitals in the USA [36]. No change in hand hygiene practices were found despite apparent uptake of the guidelines into hospital policies (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: A functional health system is a necessary part of efforts to achieve maternal mortality reduction in developing countries. Puerperal sepsis is an infection contracted during childbirth and one of the commonest causes of maternal mortality in developing countries, despite the discovery of antibiotics over eighty years ago. Infections can be contracted during childbirth either in the community or in health facilities. Some developing countries have recently experienced increased use of health facilities for labour and delivery care and there is a possibility that this trend could lead to rising rates of puerperal sepsis. Drug and technological developments need to be combined with effective health system interventions to reduce infections, including puerperal sepsis. This article reviews health system infection control measures pertinent to labour and delivery units in developing country health facilities. Organisational improvements, training, surveillance and continuous quality improvement initiatives, used alone or in combination have been shown to decrease infection rates in some clinical settings. There is limited evidence available on effective infection control measures during labour and delivery and from low resource settings. A health systems approach is necessary to reduce maternal mortality and the occurrence of infections resulting from childbirth. Organisational and behavioural change underpins the success of infection control interventions. A global, targeted initiative could raise awareness of the need for improved infection control measures during childbirth.
    Globalization and Health 05/2011; 7(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1744-8603-7-14 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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