Increased severity of alcoholic liver injury in female verses male rats: a microarray analysis.
ABSTRACT Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increasingly recognized condition that may progress to end-stage liver disease. In addition to alcohol consumption, genetic factors, dietary fatty acids, gender and viral infection potentiate the severity of alcoholic liver injury. In humans, significant gender differences in susceptibility to ALD are observed. In the intragastric infusion rat model of ALD, female rats developed more severe liver injury than males. To understand the effect of gender on the development of more severe ALD in female rats, we performed a microarray based expression profiling of genes in rats fed with fish oil and ethanol diet. A large number of genes showed significant changes in female livers compared to males. The upregulated genes in female liver were involved in proteosome endopeptidase activity, catalytic activity, lipid metabolism, alcohol metabolism, mitochondrial and oxidoreductase activity. The downregulated genes were involved in oxidoreductase activity, chaperone activity, and electron transport activity in the female liver as demonstrated by biological theme analysis. Ingenuity computational pathway analysis tools were used to identify specific regulatory networks of genes operative in promoting liver injury. These networks allowed us to identify a large cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism, development, cellular growth and proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis and various signaling pathways. Genes listed in this article that were significantly increased or decreased (expression two fold or more) were assigned to pathological functional groups and reviewed for relevance to establish hypotheses of potential mechanisms involved in ALD in female liver injury.
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ABSTRACT: Toxicogenomics (TGx) is a widely used technique in the preclinical stage of drug development to investigate the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. A number of candidate TGx biomarkers have now been identified and are utilized for both assessing and predicting toxicities. Further accumulation of novel TGx biomarkers will lead to more efficient, appropriate and cost effective drug risk assessment, reinforcing the paradigm of the conventional toxicology system with a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity. In this paper, we overview some practical strategies as well as obstacles for identifying and utilizing TGx biomarkers based on microarray analysis. Since clinical hepatotoxicity is one of the major causes of drug development attrition, the liver has been the best documented target organ for TGx studies to date, and we therefore focused on information from liver TGx studies. In this review, we summarize the current resources in the literature in regard to TGx studies of the liver, from which toxicologists could extract potential TGx biomarker gene sets for better hepatotoxicity risk assessment.Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 03/2009; 22(1):35-52. · 0.48 Impact Factor
Article: Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2), that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3), MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6), most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene expression and metabolic pathways. It especially promotes hepatic cell proliferation, as evidenced by the increased PCNA constantly found in all the experimental time-points we studied and by an increased gene expression of key metabolic pathways.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e14557. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Identification and categorization of liver toxicity markers induced by a related pair of drugs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the primary adverse event that results in the withdrawal of drugs from the market and a frequent reason for the failure of drug candidates in the pre-clinical or clinical phases of drug development. This paper presents an approach for identifying potential liver toxicity genomic biomarkers from a liver toxicity biomarker study involving the paired compounds entacapone ("non-liver toxic drug") and tolcapone ("hepatotoxic drug"). Molecular analysis of the rat liver and plasma samples, combined with statistical analysis, revealed many similarities and differences between the in vivo biochemical effects of the two drugs. Six hundred and ninety-five genes and 61 pathways were selected based on the classification scheme. Of the 61 pathways, 5 were specific to treatment with tolcapone. Two of the 12 animals in the tolcapone group were found to have high ALT, AST, or TBIL levels. The gene Vars2 (valyl-tRNA synthetase 2) was identified in both animals and the pathway to which it belongs, the aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathway, was one of the three most significant tolcapone-specific pathways identified.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(7):4609-24. · 2.60 Impact Factor