Migration of neighboring cells into the injury is important for rapid repair of damaged airway epithelium. We previously reported that activation of the A(2A )receptors (A(2A)ARs) mediates adenosine-stimulated epithelial wound healing, suggesting a role for adenosine in migration. Because A(2A)AR increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in many cells, we hypothesized that cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in adenosine-mediated cellular migration. To test this hypothesis, we stimulated a human bronchial epithelial cell line with adenosine and/or A(2A)AR agonist (5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamido-adenosine [CPCA]) in the presence or absence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride [EHNA]). Cells treated with adenosine or CPCA demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in migration. Similar results were observed in the presence and absence of EHNA. To confirm A(2A) involvement, we pretreated the cells for 1 hour with the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM241385 and then stimulated them with either adenosine or CPCA. To elucidate PKA's role, cells were pretreated for 1 hour with either a PKA inhibitor (KT5720) or a cAMP antagonist analogue (Rp-cAMPS) and then stimulated with adenosine and/or CPCA. Pretreatment with KT5720 or Rp-cAMPS resulted in a significant decrease in adenosine-mediated cellular migration. PKA activity confirmed that bronchial epithelial migration requires cAMP and PKA activity. When cells were wounded and stimulated with CPCA, an increase in PKA activity occurred. Pretreatment for 1 hour with either KT5720 or Rp-cAMPS resulted in a significant decrease in adenosine-mediated PKA activation. These data suggest that adenosine activation of A(2A)AR augments epithelial repair by increasing airway cellular migration by PKA-dependent mechanisms.
"The type of response following the activation of adenosine receptors depends on the responding cell and the adenosine receptors which it expresses. For example, within the lung increased extracellular adenosine levels during injury have been shown to induce cellular migration to promote repair . However, immune cells are typically inhibited by high local extracellular adenosine levels in order to prevent excessive collateral damage to healthy tissue that can result during an inflammatory response [13,14,17,18]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are debilitating neuroinflammatory diseases mediated by lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system (CNS). While it is not known what triggers lymphocyte entry into the CNS during neuroinflammation, blockade of lymphocyte migration has been shown to be effective in controlling neuroinflammatory diseases. Since we have previously shown that extracellular adenosine is a key mediator of lymphocyte migration into the CNS during EAE progression, we wanted to determine which factors are regulated by adenosine to modulate EAE development.
We performed a genetic analysis of wild type and CD73-/- (that are unable to produce extracellular adenosine and are protected from EAE development) to identify factors that are both important for EAE development and controlled by extracellular adenosine signaling.
We show that extracellular adenosine triggered lymphocyte migration into the CNS by inducing the expression of the specialized chemokine/adhesion molecule CX3CL1 at the choroid plexus. In wild type mice, CX3CL1 is upregulated in the brain on Day 10 post EAE induction, which corresponds with initial CNS lymphocyte infiltration and the acute stage of EAE. Conversely, mice that cannot synthesize extracellular adenosine (CD73-/- mice) do not upregulate CX3CL1 in the brain following EAE induction and are protected from EAE development and its associated lymphocyte infiltration. Additionally, blockade of the A2A adenosine receptor following EAE induction prevents disease development and the induction of brain CX3CL1 expression. The CX3CL1 induced during EAE is found on the choroid plexus, which is the barrier between the blood and cerebral spinal fluid in the brain and is a prime entry point into the CNS for immune cells. Furthermore, CX3CL1 expression can be induced in the brains of mice and in choroid plexus cell line following A2A adenosine receptor agonist administration. Most importantly, we show that CX3CL1 blockade protects against EAE development and inhibits lymphocyte entry into the CNS.
We conclude that extracellular adenosine is an endogenous modulator of neuroinflammation during EAE that induces CX3CL1 at the choroid plexus to trigger lymphocyte entry into the brain.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2012; 9(1):193. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-9-193 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease are characterized by inflammation and tissue remodeling processes that compromise pulmonary function. Adenosine is produced in the inflamed and damaged lung where it plays numerous roles in the regulation of inflammation and tissue remodeling. Extracellular adenosine serves as an autocrine and paracrine signaling molecule by engaging cell surface adenosine receptors. Preclinical and cellular studies suggest that adenosine plays an anti-inflammatory role in processes associated with acute lung disease, where activation of the A2AR and A2BR has promising implications for the treatment of these disorders. In contrast, there is growing evidence that adenosine signaling through the A1R, A2BR and A3R may serve pro-inflammatory and tissue remodeling functions in chronic lung diseases. This review discusses the current progress of research efforts and clinical trials aimed at understanding the complexities of these signaling pathway as they pertain to the development of treatment strategies for chronic lung diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular adenosine is a physiologically relevant agonist released by various sources, including endothelial cells (EC) and activated platelets, with complex effects mediated via activation of P1 purinergic receptors. Adenosine-induced EC production of glutathione peroxidase1 and nitric oxide is recognized, and an anti-inflammatory mechanism has been described. Effects of extracellular adenosine on the pulmonary EC barrier function and vascular permeability, however, remain poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrated the adenosine-induced rapid dose-dependent barrier enhancement in human pulmonary artery EC (HPAEC) as measured by an increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). We have shown that HPAEC express only A2A and A2B adenosine receptors. Pharmacological and siRNA depletion studies indicate that A2A, but not A2B receptor activation is required for the adenosine-induced TER increase. Depletion of Galphas with a specific siRNA significantly attenuated the adenosine-induced TER response in HPAEC. In contrast, depletion of either Galphaq or Galphai2 did not affect the adenosine-induced TER increase. This suggests that the adenosine-induced TER increase is cAMP-dependent. The adenosine-induced barrier enhancement effects were associated with a rearrangement of the EC F-actin component of the cytoskeleton, enhanced cell-surface presentation of cell-cell junctional protein VE-cadherin and an involvement of Myosin-light-chain phosphatase (MLCP). Our results suggest, for the first time, that adenosine regulates the EC barrier function via A2A receptors followed by Galphas engagement and is associated with cytoskeletal activation.
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