A decade of cardiothoracic surgery at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.41). 12/2007; 57(11):532-5.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The medical records at Aga Khan University were reviewed to analyze the trends, mortality and patients characteristics of cardiothoracic surgeries in the last decade.
The medical records of all adult cardiac, thoracic and combined cardiothoracic operations performed during January 1995 to December 2004 at the Aga Khan University Hospital were reviewed. Data were retrieved and analyzed for trends, patient characteristics, and procedure mortality.
From January 1995 - December 2004, 4553 cases were eligible for the study, of which 73% were males and 9.4% were children. Male to female ratio changed from 1.3:1 to 3:1 from childhood to adulthood. Number of patients requiring cardiothoracic intervention increased continuously throughout the period, cardiac operations outnumbering thoracic or combined procedures. Ten-year average annual mortality remained 4.8% with slight variation per annum. Age distribution of cardiac surgery patients remained the same, however, constantly increasing number of over-70-year olds was observed. Mortality for isolated CABG, isolated valve and CABG with valve remained 1.9%, 4.3% and 18.3% respectively.
Trends of cardiothoracic procedures appear similar to those in the developed countries, so are the mortality figures.

Download full-text


Available from: Shahid Ahmed Sami, Sep 26, 2015
24 Reads
  • Source
    Critical Care Nurse 05/2003; 23(2):72-91. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people with diabetes who are > or =20 years of age in all countries of the world for three points in time, i.e., the years 1995, 2000, and 2025, and to calculate additional parameters, such as sex ratio, urban-rural ratio, and the age structure of the diabetic population. Age-specific diabetes prevalence estimates were applied to United Nations population estimates and projections for the number of adults aged > or =20 years in all countries of the world. For developing countries, urban and rural populations were considered separately Prevalence of diabetes in adults worldwide was estimated to be 4.0% in 1995 and to rise to 5.4% by the year 2025. It is higher in developed than in developing countries. The number of adults with diabetes in the world will rise from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million in the year 2025. The major part of this numerical increase will occur in developing countries. There will be a 42% increase, from 51 to 72 million, in the developed countries and a 170% increase, from 84 to 228 million, in the developing countries. Thus, by the year 2025, >75% of people with diabetes will reside in developing countries, as compared with 62% in 1995. The countries with the largest number of people with diabetes are, and will be in the year 2025, India, China, and the U.S. In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years. In the developed countries, the majority of people with diabetes are aged > or =65 years. This pattern will be accentuated by the year 2025. There are more women than men with diabetes, especially in developed countries. In the future, diabetes will be increasingly concentrated in urban areas. This report supports earlier predictions of the epidemic nature of diabetes in the world during the first quarter of the 21st century. It also provides a provisional picture of the characteristics of the epidemic. Worldwide surveillance of diabetes is a necessary first step toward its prevention and control, which is now recognized as an urgent priority.
    Diabetes Care 09/1998; 21(9):1414-31. DOI:10.2337/diacare.21.9.1414 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reliable information on causes of death is essential to the development of national and international health policies for prevention and control of disease and injury. Medically certified information is available for less than 30% of the estimated 50.5 million deaths that occur each year worldwide. However, other data sources can be used to develop cause-of-death estimates for populations. To be useful, estimates must be internally consistent, plausible, and reflect epidemiological characteristics suggested by community-level data. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) used various data sources and made corrections for miscoding of important diseases (eg, ischaemic heart disease) to estimate worldwide and regional cause-of-death.patterns in 1990 for 14 age-sex groups in eight regions, for 107 causes. Preliminary estimates were developed with available vital-registration data, sample-registration data for India and China, and small-scale population-study data sources. Registration data were corrected for miscoding, and Lorenz-curve analysis was used to estimate cause-of-death patterns in areas without registration. Preliminary estimates were modified to reflect the epidemiology of selected diseases and injuries. Final estimates were checked to ensure that numbers of deaths in specific age-sex groups did not exceed estimates suggested by independent demographic methods. 98% of all deaths in children younger than 15 years are in the developing world. 83% and 59% of deaths at 15-59 and 70 years, respectively, are in the developing world. The probability of death between birth and 15 years ranges from 22.0% in sub-Saharan Africa to 1.1% in the established market economies. Probabilities of death between 15 and 60 years range from 7.2% for women in established market economies to 39.1% for men in sub-Saharan Africa. The probability of a man or woman dying from a non-communicable disease is higher in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions than in established market economies. Worldwide in 1990, communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 17.2 million deaths, non-communicable diseases for 28.1 million deaths and injuries for 5.1 million deaths. The leading causes of death in 1990 were ischaemic heart disease (6.3 million deaths), cerebrovascular accidents (4.4 million deaths), lower respiratory infections (4.3 million), diarrhoeal diseases (2.9 million), perinatal disorders (2.4 million), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.2 million), tuberculosis (2.0 million), measles (1.1 million), road-traffic accidents (1.0 million), and lung cancer (0.9 million). Five of the ten leading killers are communicable, perinatal, and nutritional disorders largely affecting children. Non-communicable diseases are, however, already major public health challenges in all regions. Injuries, which account for 10% of global mortality, are often ignored as a major cause of death and may require innovative strategies to reduce their toll. The estimates by cause have wide Cls, but provide a foundation for a more informed debate on public-health priorities.
    The Lancet 06/1997; 349(9061):1269-76. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07493-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
Show more