Increased serum IgM antibodies directed against phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: Evidence that an IgM-mediated immune response against Pi is one factor underpinning the comorbidity between both CFS and depression
Major depression and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are accompanied by signs of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and an inflammatory response. Phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) is thought to play a role in depression. The aim of the present study is to examine whether depression and CFS are characterized by an IgM-mediated immune response directed against Pi. Toward this end, this study examines the serum IgM antibodies directed against Pi in 14 patients with major depression, 14 patients with CFS, 14 subjects with partial CFS, and in 11 normal controls. We found that the prevalence and mean value for the serum IgM levels directed against Pi were significantly greater in patients with major depression and CFS than in normal controls and patients with partial CFS. There were significant and positive correlations between serum IgM levels directed against Pi and two symptoms of the FibroFatigue Scale, i.e. fatigue and depression. The results show that an IgM-related immune response directed against Pi may occur in both depression and CFS and may play a role in the pathophysiology of the key symptom of CFS and major depression. It is suggested that the above disorders in Pi result from increased O&NS in both depression and CFS. Autoanti-Pi antibodies may have biological effects, for example, by changing inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) production, thus interfering with intracellular signalling processes. Future research in major depression and CFS should focus on the functional consequences of the immune responses directed against Pi.
"In these processes O&NS pathways may alter the chemical structure of membrane fatty acids and functional proteins. When these modified fatty acids and proteins become immunogenic, an autoimmune response may be mounted directed against these 'neoepitopes' thereby further damaging the function or chemical structure of these epitopes [132,133]. Many depressed patients show increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against neoepitopes, such as the three anchorage molecules, palmitic and myristic acid and L-farnesyl S-cysteine, as well as acetylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, oleic acid, and NO-adducts, including NO-tryptophan and NO-tyrosine . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and weight loss, and melancholic (anhedonia), physio-somatic (fatigue, hyperalgesia, malaise), anxiety and neurocognitive symptoms. In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. The latter mechanisms are the substrate of a neuroprogressive process, whereby multiple depressive episodes cause neural tissue damage and consequent functional and cognitive sequelae. Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. Inflammation may provoke a Janus-faced response with a good, acute side, generating protective inflammation through sickness behavior and a bad, chronic side, for example, clinical depression, a lifelong disorder with positive feedback loops between (neuro)inflammation and (neuro)degenerative processes following less well defined triggers.
BMC Medicine 06/2012; 10(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-10-66 · 7.25 Impact Factor
"The second major finding is that the IgM autoimmune responses to all neo-epitopes, and to the oxidatively (palmitic and myristic acid) and nitrosatively (all 5 NOderivatives ) modified neo-epitopes were significantly associated with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms (including items such as aches and pain, muscular tension, fatigue, neurocognitive disorders, irritable bowel syndrome and a flu-like malaise), but not with depressive symptoms (including sadness, irritability, sleep disturbances and autonomic symptoms). The results are in agreement with previous reports that in ME/CFS signs of O&NS are related to F&S symptoms (Vecchiet et al. 2003; Maes et al. 2007b) and postexertional malaise (Kennedy et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and depression are considered to be neuro-immune disorders (Maes and Twisk, BMC Medicine 8:35, 2010). There is also evidence that depression and ME/CFS are accompanied by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and by increased autoantibodies to a number of self-epitopes some of which have become immunogenic due to damage by O&NS. The aim of this study is to examine IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to different self-epitopes in ME/CFS versus depression. We examined serum IgM antibodies to three anchorage molecules (palmitic and myristic acid and S-farnesyl-L-cysteine); acetylcholine; and conjugated NO-modified adducts in 26 patients with major depression; 16 patients with ME/CFS, 15 with chronic fatigue; and 17 normal controls. Severity of fatigue and physio-somatic (F&S) symptoms was measured with the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating Scale. Serum IgM antibodies to the three anchorage molecules and NO-phenylalanine were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression. The autoimmune responses to oxidatively, but not nitrosatively, modified self-epitopes were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and were associated with F&S symptoms. The autoimmune activity directed against conjugated acetylcholine did not differ significantly between ME/CFS and depression, but was greater in the patients than controls. Partially overlapping pathways, i.e. increased IgM antibodies to a multitude of neo-epitopes, underpin both ME/CFS and depression, while greater autoimmune responses directed against anchorage molecules and oxidatively modified neo-epitopes discriminate patients with ME/CFS from those with depression. These autoimmune responses directed against neoantigenic determinants may play a role in the dysregulation of key cellular functions in both disorders, e.g. intracellular signal transduction, cellular differentiation and apoptosis, but their impact may be more important in ME/CFS than in depression.
"Lower inositol CSF levels have been detected in depression, while inositol may have some clinical utility in the treatment of depression (Barkai et al., 1978; Levine et al., 1993). It was found that in depression there was a significantly higher IgM-mediated immune response directed against Pi than in volunteers (Maes et al., 2007). Furthermore, the IgM-mediated autoimmune response against Pi was significantly and positively correlated to symptoms such as sadness and fatigue. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the body of evidence that major depression is accompanied by a decreased antioxidant status and by induction of oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways. Major depression is characterized by significantly lower plasma concentrations of a number of key antioxidants, such as vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and a lowered total antioxidant status. Lowered antioxidant enzyme activity, e.g. glutathione peroxidase (GPX), is another hallmark of depression. The abovementioned lowered antioxidant capacity may impair protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to fatty acids, proteins and DNA by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS). Increased ROS in depression is demonstrated by increased levels of plasma peroxides and xanthine oxidase. Damage caused by O&NS is shown by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation and arachidonic acid; and increased 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, indicating oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence in major depression, that O&NS may have changed inactive autoepitopes to neoantigens, which have acquired immunogenicity and serve as triggers to bypass immunological tolerance, causing (auto)immune responses. Thus, depression is accompanied by increased levels of plasma IgG antibodies against oxidized LDL; and increased IgM-mediated immune responses against membrane fatty acids, like phosphatidyl inositol (Pi); oleic, palmitic, and myristic acid; and NO modified amino-acids, e.g. NO-tyrosine, NO-tryptophan and NO-arginine; and NO-albumin. There is a significant association between depression and polymorphisms in O&NS genes, like manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase. Animal models of depression very consistently show lowered antioxidant defences and activated O&NS pathways in the peripheral blood and the brain. In animal models of depression, antidepressants consistently increase lowered antioxidant levels and normalize the damage caused by O&NS processes. Antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-cysteine, compounds that mimic GPX activity, and zinc exhibit antidepressive effects. This paper reviews the pathways by which lowered antioxidants and O&NS may contribute to depression, and the (neuro)degenerative processes that accompany that illness. It is concluded that aberrations in O&NS pathways are--together with the inflammatory processes--key components of depression. All in all, the results suggest that depression belongs to the spectrum of (neuro)degenerative disorders.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2011; 35(3):676-92. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.05.004 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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