Cycling injuries of the lower extremity.
ABSTRACT Cycling is an increasingly popular recreational and competitive activity, and cycling-related injuries are becoming more common. Many common cycling injuries of the lower extremity are preventable. These include knee pain, patellar quadriceps tendinitis, iliotibial band syndrome, hip pain, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, numbness of the foot, and metatarsalgia. Injury is caused by a combination of inadequate preparation, inappropriate equipment, poor technique, and overuse. Nonsurgical management may include rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injection, ice, a reduction in training intensity, orthotics, night splints, and physical therapy. Injury prevention should be the focus, with particular attention to bicycle fit and alignment, appropriate equipment, proper rider position and pedaling mechanics, and appropriate training.
- SourceAvailable from: Rodrigo R Bini[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Our study evaluated differences in body position on the bicycle for recreational cyclists, competitive cyclists and triathletes. Thirty-six recreational cyclists, 17 competitive road cyclists and 18 competitive triathletes were assessed for body position on their bicycles on a cycle trainer. Images were taken of cyclists/triathletes in static poses with the crank at the 3 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions. Trunk, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle angles, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral positions of the knees in relation to the pedal axis and frontal projected area were measured using ImageJ. Comparison of body position between groups (recreational, competitive road cyclists and competitive triathletes) was conducted using effects sizes (ES). The greatest differences between groups in the measured variables were observed between the triathletes and the other two groups. Smaller differences were observed between competitive and recreational cyclists. Competitive triathletes had greater body forward projection (10% greater trunk flexion and 66% knee anterior position, ES = 2.5 and 1.2, respectively) and less frontal projected area (17%, ES = 1.3) than competitive road cyclists for body position on the bicycle. Both recreational and competitive cyclists sat on their bicycles with their trunks in a more vertical position compared to triathletes. Guidelines for bicycle configuration for triathletes and road cyclists need to consider the body positions during events.European journal of sport science. 01/2014; 14(sup1):S109-S115.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to measure saddle height effects on knee joint load. Nine uninjured non-cyclists were evaluated in three saddle heights: 100% of trochanteric height-REF; 103% of REF-HIGH; and 97% of REF-LOW. Two-dimensional sagittal plane force applied on the pedal and kinematics were recorded. After inverse dynamics of the lower limb, knee resultant force was computed as tibiofemoral normal and shear components and compressive patellofemoral force. Peak patellofemoral compressive force and peak compressive and shear tibiofemoral forces did not differ when saddle height was changed. Knee angle at the lower crank position increased at LOW compared to REF and HIGH saddle height (p<0.02). Small saddle height changes (±3%) did not affect knee joint load, at low workloads on uninjured subjects, while changes in knee angle did not relate to effects on joint forces. These findings suggest that setting saddle height by knee angle secures the maintenance of joint load at low workloads on uninjured subjects.Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 04/2011; 15(2):186-91.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of tensiomyography (TMG) in professional road cyclists and to examine how the planned periods of the Season produce differences in the muscles: vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and biceps femoris, and to determine how these differences may depend on each cyclist, the assessed muscle, and the side of the body. Ten professional road cyclists (27.5±5.5 years; 178.2±7.8cm; 65.6±5.46kg; 72.1±3.7ml/kg/min VO2máx; 6±0.4W/kg) were assessed by TMG, in mycrocicles recovery, at two moments of periods during the season: preparation period (PP) and competition period (CP). Student's t contrast for paired groups, Cohen's d effect sizes and a Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied. We did not find significant differences (p<0.01) between the lower limbs. The results showed a significant large increment between the Time Contraction (TC) values of the PP and CP in the muscles vastus medialis (28.7±5.5 Vs 40.6±14.4 ms; 41.4% p<0.05 d=1.1), vastus lateralis (28.3±4.9 Vs 40.6±10.2 ms; 43.4% p<0.05 d=1.53), and rectus femoris (35.9±6.9 Vs 45.9±16.2 ms; 27.8% p<0.05 d=0.8). Nevertheless, TC of the biceps femoris presents a significant large decrease in the CP (35.9±9.9 Vs 28.2±5.2 ms; -21.4% p<0.05 d=0.97). Radial muscle displacement (DM) values are slightly lower during the CP but the difference is not significant. ANOVA confirmed that these differences depend on the evaluated muscles (TC p=0.02; DM p=0.001) and on the cyclists (TC p=0.001; DM p=0.001) and does not depend on the side of the body. In conclusion, the TC values during the Season show marked differences between the knee extensors (large increased) and the knee flexor (large decreased). DM has not changed significantly, keeping the muscular and tendon stiffness.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 01/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor