Cycling injuries of the lower extremity.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, USA.
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (Impact Factor: 2.4). 01/2008; 15(12):748-56.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cycling is an increasingly popular recreational and competitive activity, and cycling-related injuries are becoming more common. Many common cycling injuries of the lower extremity are preventable. These include knee pain, patellar quadriceps tendinitis, iliotibial band syndrome, hip pain, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, numbness of the foot, and metatarsalgia. Injury is caused by a combination of inadequate preparation, inappropriate equipment, poor technique, and overuse. Nonsurgical management may include rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injection, ice, a reduction in training intensity, orthotics, night splints, and physical therapy. Injury prevention should be the focus, with particular attention to bicycle fit and alignment, appropriate equipment, proper rider position and pedaling mechanics, and appropriate training.

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    ABSTRACT: The usage of innovative technologies in high performance cycling is essential. Special insole devices made of carbon are expected to have an impact on the anatomical and biomechanical structures of the foot. They aim to prevent cycling-specific overuse injuries, as well to increase output power. Therefore, the effects of a cycling-specific carbon insole were evaluated with respect to its impact on the output power in a Wingate Test (WAnT). 18 male cyclists and triathletes (age: 26.3 ± 5.6 years, height: 181.9 ± 4.7 cm, mass: 76.7 ± 4.4 kg, foot length 28.2 ± 0.8 cm) on at least a national level were tested for peak and mean power during three WAnT with randomized and blind application of a standard insole or the cycling-specific carbon insole. The mean power of the standard insole (790.6 ± 50.3 W) was in overall trials 0.6 % higher than with the carbon insole (786.0 ± 45.0 W). The peak power with the standard insole (891.7 ± 74.6 W) was 1.5 % higher than with the carbon insole (878.4 ± 64.9 W). Neither for mean power (P = 0.76) nor for peak power (P = 0.53) the difference was significant. The usage of the cycling-specific carbon insole thus shows similar output power values as standard devices.
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    ABSTRACT: Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies¬ and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide realtime signal processing and guidance.
    05/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1109/JBHI.2014.2322871
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    Edited by Rodrigo Bini and Felipe Carpes, 08/2014; Springer., ISBN: 978-3-319-05538-1