AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1 at Thr1337 to induce disassembly of Golgi apparatus.
ABSTRACT Sufficiency and depletion of nutrients regulate the cellular activities through the protein phosphorylation reaction; however, many protein substrates remain to be clarified. GBF1 (Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family associated with the Golgi apparatus, was isolated as a phosphoprotein from the glucose-depleted cells by using the phospho-Akt-substrate antibody, which recognizes the substrate proteins of several protein kinases. The phosphorylation of GBF1 was induced by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which blocks glucose utilization and increases the intracellular AMP concentration, and by AICAR, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator. This phosphorylation was observed in the cells expressing the constitutively active AMPK. The 2-DG-induced phosphorylation of GBF1 was suppressed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and by the overexpression of the kinase-negative AMPK. Analysis using the deletion and point mutants identified Thr(1337) as the 2-DG-induced phosphorylation site in GBF1, which is phosphorylated by AMPK in vitro. ATP depletion is known to provoke the Golgi apparatus disassembly. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis with the Golgi markers indicated that GBF1 associates with the fragmented Golgi apparatus in the cells treated with 2-DG and AICAR. The expression of the kinase-negative AMPK and the GBF1 mutant replacing Thr(1337) by Ala prevented the 2-DG-induced Golgi disassembly. These results indicate that GBF1 is a novel AMPK substrate and that the AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of GBF1 at Thr(1337) has a critical role, presumably by attenuating the function of GBF1, in the disassembly of the Golgi apparatus induced under stress conditions that lower the intracellular ATP concentration.
Article: Differential pattern of glycogen accumulation after protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit PPP1R6 overexpression, compared to PPP1R3C and PPP1R3A, in skeletal muscle cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PPP1R6 is a protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit (PP1-GTS) abundant in skeletal muscle with an undefined metabolic control role. Here PPP1R6 effects on myotube glycogen metabolism, particle size and subcellular distribution are examined and compared with PPP1R3C/PTG and PPP1R3A/G(M). PPP1R6 overexpression activates glycogen synthase (GS), reduces its phosphorylation at Ser-641/0 and increases the extracted and cytochemically-stained glycogen content, less than PTG but more than G(M). PPP1R6 does not change glycogen phosphorylase activity. All tested PP1-GTS-cells have more glycogen particles than controls as found by electron microscopy of myotube sections. Glycogen particle size is distributed for all cell-types in a continuous range, but PPP1R6 forms smaller particles (mean diameter 14.4 nm) than PTG (36.9 nm) and G(M) (28.3 nm) or those in control cells (29.2 nm). Both PPP1R6- and G(M)-derived glycogen particles are in cytosol associated with cellular structures; PTG-derived glycogen is found in membrane- and organelle-devoid cytosolic glycogen-rich areas; and glycogen particles are dispersed in the cytosol in control cells. A tagged PPP1R6 protein at the C-terminus with EGFP shows a diffuse cytosol pattern in glucose-replete and -depleted cells and a punctuate pattern surrounding the nucleus in glucose-depleted cells, which colocates with RFP tagged with the Golgi targeting domain of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, according to a computational prediction for PPP1R6 Golgi location. PPP1R6 exerts a powerful glycogenic effect in cultured muscle cells, more than G(M) and less than PTG. PPP1R6 protein translocates from a Golgi to cytosolic location in response to glucose. The molecular size and subcellular location of myotube glycogen particles is determined by the PPP1R6, PTG and G(M) scaffolding.BMC Biochemistry 11/2011; 12:57. · 1.99 Impact Factor