Criminal recidivism among juvenile offenders: Testing the incremental and predictive validity of three measures of psychopathic features
ABSTRACT We studied the predictive, comparative, and incremental validity of three measures of psychopathic features (Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD]; Childhood Psychopathy Scale [CPS]) vis-à-vis criminal recidivism among 83 delinquent youth within a truly prospective design. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazard analyses) showed that of the three measures, the CPS was most consistently related to most types of recidivism in comparison to the other measures. However, incremental validity analyses demonstrated that all of the predictive effects for the measures of psychopathic features disappeared after conceptually relevant covariates (i.e., substance use, conduct disorder, young age, past property crime) were included in multivariate predictive models. Implications for the limits of these measures in applied juvenile justice assessment are discussed.
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- "Additional items were added to assess individual characteristics of psychopathy to create the 50-item modified self-report version. Research investigating the self-reported CPS has largely supported a rationally-derived three-factor structure analogous to the APSD (Douglas et al. 2008; Spain et al. 2004); however, support for the CPS Affective scale, which includes distinct callous, unemotional, and remorselessness components, has been inconsistent, and studies have not typically examined the CPS at the subscale level. Spain et al. (2004) noted that the CPS Affective factor moderately correlated with physical, verbal, and administrative incidents in a residential treatment facility. "
ABSTRACT: The present study examined the incremental validity of four self-report measures of adolescent psychopathy [i.e., Antisocial Process Screening Device self-report version (APSD), Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS), Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI), and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU)] with particular interest in their assessment of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in a sample of 279 (246 males, 33 females) at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18). Analogous subscales across the four measures were weakly to moderately interrelated with no evidence of a true gold-standard self-report assessment of CU traits. Results indicate that CU traits are a multifaceted construct, with specific CU dimensions predicting differential aspects of antisocial behavior. Most notably, callousness predicted aggression incrementally above other CU domains, but not other forms of antisocial behavior. The implications of a multi-dimensional conceptualization of CU traits are discussed.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2015; 37(2):207-216. DOI:10.1007/s10862-014-9460-z · 1.55 Impact Factor
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- "). Other factors strongly predictive of recidivism in youth, such as a younger age at first contact with the law (Dahlberg & Simon, 2006; Douglas et al., 2008; Farrington, 2003; Fried & Reppucci, 2002; Knight, Little, Losoya, & Mulvey, 2004) and the presence of delinquent peers (Elliott & Menard, 1996; Knight et al., 2004; Lipsey & Derzon, 1998; Moffitt, Caspi, Dickson, Silva, & Stanton, 1996) have also been ignored thus far. However, it could be that youth with features predictive of offending, such as those outlined here, are less likely to perceive their treatment as procedurally just, and that it is these individual differences that account for the observed relationship between procedural justice and offending. "
ABSTRACT: Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience respectful and fair legal decision-making procedures are more likely to believe in the legitimacy of the law and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, few studies have examined these relationships in youth. To begin to fill this gap in the literature, in the current study, the authors studied 92 youth (67 male, 25 female) on probation regarding their perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy, and then monitored their offending over the subsequent 6 months. Results indicated that perceptions of procedural justice predicted self-reported offending at 3 months but not at 6 months, and that youths' beliefs about the legitimacy of the law did not mediate this relationship. Furthermore, procedural justice continued to account for unique variance in self-reported offending over and above the predictive power of well-established risk factors for offending (i.e., peer delinquency, substance abuse, psychopathy, and age at first contact with the law). Theoretically, the current study provides evidence that models of procedural justice developed for adults are only partially replicated in a sample of youth; practically, this research suggests that by treating adolescents in a fair and just manner, justice professionals may be able to reduce the likelihood that adolescents will reoffend, at least in the short term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).Law and Human Behavior 10/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.1037/lhb0000055 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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- "Finally, our sample (juvenile boys) may better resemble the sample in which the mCPS was developed: boys at high risk for delinquency. Douglas and colleagues (Boccaccini et al. 2007; Douglas et al. 2008; Spain et al. 2004) found moderate to good internal consistency for mCPS total score (α0.78 to .87) in different samples of adolescent offenders with a mean age around 15–16 years. Taken together, the data indicate that the internal consistency of the self report mCPS is adequate in male adolescent forensic samples, but not necessarily in other samples (e.g., girls, younger children , the community). "
ABSTRACT: Adult psychopathy has proven to be an important clinical and forensic construct, but much less is known about juvenile psychopathy. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of the self report modified Child Psychopathy Scale mCPS; Lynam (Psychological Bulletin 120:(2), 209-234, 1997) in a sample of 57 adolescents residing in a Dutch juvenile justice center, aged between 13 and 22 years. The mCPS total score was reliably related to high externalizing problems, low empathy, high anger and aggression, high impulsivity, high (violent) delinquency, and high alcohol/drug use. Unique relations were found for the antisocial-impulsive (mCPS Factor 2), but not the callous-unemotional facet of psychopathy (mCPS Factor 1). Our findings support the validity of the mCPS in that it encompasses the antisocial-impulsive facet of psychopathy, but it is less clear whether the mCPS sufficiently captures the affective-interpersonal facet of psychopathy.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2012; 34(2):244-252. DOI:10.1007/s10862-011-9272-3 · 1.55 Impact Factor