Article

New intrinsically radiopaque hydrophilic microspheres for embolization: synthesis and characterization.

Centre for Biomaterials Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Biomacromolecules (Impact Factor: 5.37). 02/2008; 9(1):84-90. DOI: 10.1021/bm7008334
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polymeric particles currently used for embolization procedures have the disadvantage that they are radiolucent, that is, invisible on X-ray images, and consequently the interventional radiologist has to resort to angiography to (indirectly) monitor the fate of the particles. Here, we introduce intrinsically radiopaque hydrophilic microspheres. Since these microspheres can directly be visualized on X-ray images, using these microspheres for embolization purposes will allow superprecise location of the embolic material, both during and after the procedure. The microspheres, which are prepared by suspension polymerization, are based on the radiopaque monomer 2-[4-iodobenzoyl]-oxo-ethylmethacrylate and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and/or 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) as hydrophilic component. It has been shown that for clinically relevant X-ray visibility the spheres should contain at least 20 wt % iodine. At this iodine content, copolymerization with HEMA results in spheres that hardly imbibe water (EQ = 1.08). When HEMA is replaced by NVP, the volume swelling ratio can be significantly increased (to 1.33).

2 Bookmarks
 · 
370 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synthesis and characterization of three different radiopaque thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers are reported. Radiopacity was introduced to the polyurethanes by incorporating an iodinated chain extender, namely, 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA), into the polymer chain during polyurethane synthesis. Radiopaque polyurethanes (RPUs) were synthesized by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), IBPA, and three different diols. The polyols used for the synthesis were polypropylene glycol, polycaprolactone diol, and poly(hexamethylene carbonate) diol. RPUs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that all RPUs prepared using IBPA as the chain extender are highly radiopaque compared with an Aluminum wedge of equivalent thickness. Elemental analysis revealed that the polyurethanes contained 18-19% iodine in the polymer matrix. The RPUs developed have radiopacity equivalent to that of a polymer filled with 20 wt % barium sulfate. Results revealed that RPUs of wide range of properties may be produced by incorporating different diols as the soft chain segment. Cell culture cytotoxicity studies conducted using L929 cells by direct contact test and MTT assay proved that these RPUs are noncytotoxic in nature. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2012.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 07/2012; 100(12):3472-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synthetic polymeric microspheres find application in a wide range of medical applications. Among other applications, microspheres are being used as bulking agents, embolic- or drug-delivery particles. The exact composition of the spheres varies with the application and therefore a large array of materials has been used to produce microspheres. In this review, the relation between microsphere synthesis and application is discussed for a number of microspheres that are used for different treatment strategies.
    Materials. 01/2010;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, we report a new strategy to fabricate monodispersed radiopaque alginate (Ba-alginate) microgels by a one-step microfluidic method. Alginate droplets containing sulfate ions are first formed by a flow focusing microfluidic setup. These alginate droplets are subsequently solidified by barium ions in a collection bath. During the solidification process, excessive barium ions in the collection bath also react with sulfate ions in the alginate droplet, resulting in barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) nanoparticles in situ synthesized (acting as radiopaque imaging agents) within the Ba-alginate microgels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) illustrate that 800 nm BaSO(4) nanoparticles are uniformly distributed inside the 30 μm Ba-alginate microgels, with 62 wt% of elemental barium (Ba). In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that the BaSO(4) nanoparticles consist of 10 nm in situ synthesized BaSO(4) crystallites. The alginate microgels act as a soft and porous template to prevent the precipitation and aggregation of BaSO(4) nanoparticles. The Ba-alginate microgels are also visible under X-ray radiation. The facile route to fabricate alginate microgels as radiopaque embolic materials is of particular importance for endovascular embolization and localized diagnostic imaging applications. Similar approaches can also be adopted for synthesizing other inorganic nanoparticles in microgels.
    Lab on a Chip 09/2012; 12(22):4781-6. · 5.70 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
209 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014