The influence of Sr doses on the in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo degradability of single-phase Sr-incorporated HAP cement.
ABSTRACT In previous studies, we developed a new type of Sr-incorporated hydroxyapatite cement (Sr-HAC), which was shown to have many excellent physiochemical properties, by an ionic cement route (Guo et al., Biomaterials 2005;26:4073-4083). As a further study, the main aims of this article were to examine the Sr-HAC's in vitro biocompatibility, including acute toxicity, hemolytic reaction, pyrogen reaction, and cytoxicity, to evaluate its in vivo degradability during intramuscular and femur implantation, and also to investigate the influence of Sr doses on these properties. The in vitro results show that all of the Sr-HAC samples exhibit satisfactory biocompatibility, and the Sr/(Sr+Ca) molar ratio has an important effect on these properties. For example, the Sr-HAC with a Sr/(Sr+Ca) molar ratio of 5% (5% Sr-HAC) has higher biocompatibility than both the one with a Sr/(Sr+Ca) molar ratio of 10% (10% Sr-HAC) and the Sr-free one. The in vivo results of both the rabbit intramuscular and femur implantation experiments show that the Sr-HAC samples exhibit a much faster degradation rate than the Sr-free one, and that this also depends on the Sr/(Sr+Ca) molar ratio. Specifically, the mean degradation rate of the 10% Sr-HAC increases by an amplitude of 73.9 wt % compared with that of the Sr-free HAC. In addition, the optical transmission photographs show that the Sr doses play an important role on the interface between the implants and the new bone. The energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis indicates that there exists a gradient distribution of Sr element in the tight and bioactive interface between the implants and new bone, indicating that the Sr element takes a share in the mineralization of the new bone together with Ca element.
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ABSTRACT: The distribution and incorporation of strontium into bone has been examined in rats, monkeys, and humans after oral administration of strontium (either strontium chloride or strontium ranelate). After repeated administration for a sufficient period of time (at least 4 weeks in rats), strontium incorporation into bone reaches a plateau level. This plateau appears to be lower in females than in males due to a difference in the absorption process. Steady-state plasma strontium levels are reached more rapidly than in bones, and within 10 days in the rat. The strontium levels in bone vary according to the anatomical site. However, strontium levels at different skeletal sites are strongly correlated, and the strontium content of the lumbar vertebra may be estimated from iliac crest bone biopsies in monkeys. The strontium levels in bone also vary according to the bone structure and higher amounts of strontium are found in cancellous bone than in cortical bone. Furthermore, at the crystal level, higher concentrations of strontium are observed in newly formed bone than in old bone. After withdrawal of treatment, the bone strontium content rapidly decreases in monkeys. The relatively high clearance rate of strontium from bone can be explained by the mechanisms of its incorporation. Strontium is mainly incorporated by exchange onto the crystal surface. In new bone, only a few strontium atoms may be incorporated into the crystal by ionic substitution of calcium. After treatment withdrawal, strontium exchanged onto the crystal is rapidly eliminated, which leads to a rapid decrease in total bone strontium levels. In summary, incorporation of strontium into bone, mainly by exchange onto the crystal surface, is dependent on the duration of treatment, dose, gender, and skeletal site. Nevertheless, bone strontium content is highly correlated with plasma strontium levels and, in bone, between the different skeletal sites.Bone 05/2001; 28(4):446-53. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore 500) formed by conversion of the Porites goniopora coral exoskeleton has pores averaging 600 micrometers and pore interconnections averaging 260 micrometers in diameter. In the proximal tibial metaphysis of eight dogs, a defect one cubic centimeter in size was created unilaterally and was fitted with a block of Interpore 500. Both proximal tibial metaphyses were retrieved at two, four, six, and twelve months. Stained undecalcified sections were examined by light microscopy and quantitated by histometric methods. The implant-side specimens contained compact bone along the external surface and trabecular bone interiorly. The interior of these specimens was composed of 51.9 +/- 1.3 per cent soft tissue, 13.0 +/- 1.2 per cent bone, and 35.1 +/- 1.2 per cent Interpore 500 (mean and standard error). The interior of the normal specimens was composed of 79.7 +/- 1.4 per cent soft tissue and 20.2 +/- 1.4 per cent bone. The allocation of implant pore space between bone and soft tissue was proportional to that of bone and soft tissue in the normal tibiae. The stereological distribution of regenerated bone in the porous hydroxyapatite was also the same as in the normal tibiae. The appositional process of incorporation of the implant was confirmed by the finding that 66.5 per cent of the surface of the Interpore 500 was covered with bone ingrowth at twelve months.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/1986; 68(6):904-11. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preparation and analyses of a series of hydroxyapatites (HA) containing 1-10 mol % of Ca2+ replaced by Sr2+ is reported. The solubility of these apatites is found to increase with increasing content of Sr2+, 10% SrHA dissolves faster than CaHA at given values of Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations, but with a similar rate at the same degree of saturation. Sr2+ is found to inhibit the rates of both dissolution and growth of CaHA and 10% SrHA at pH 7.2, CaHA being more strongly inhibited by Sr2+ than 10% SrHA. The effect of partial substitution of Ca2+ in hydroxyapatite by Sr2+ on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry has been studied using three commercial densitometers. Extrapolating the absorption data for up to 10% replacement of Ca2+ by Sr2+ to 100% substitution of Ca2+ by Sr2+ in HA leads to an apparent increase in BMC or BMD of about a factor of 10. This factor is in agreement with theoretical calculations using attenuation coefficients of the atoms concerned. It is concluded that existing BMC scanners register artificially high values of BMC if the bone contains significant amounts of Sr2+ or other metal ions with atomic number larger than calcium.Bone 02/1997; 20(1):47-54. · 3.82 Impact Factor