Palisade nerve endings (PNs) are mechanoreceptors around vellus hairs of mammals. Each lanceolate nerve ending (LN) of the PN is characterized by a sensory nerve ending symmetrically sandwiched by two processes of type II terminal Schwann cells (tSCIIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the structural organization of the PN are poorly understood. Electron microscopy showed that adherens junctions appeared to adhere to the sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes, so we examined the location of the N-cadherin adhesion system in PNs of rat vellus hairs by using immunoelectron microscopy. N-cadherin localized near both ends of the cell boundary between sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes, which corresponded to the sites of adherens junctions. We further found cadherin-associated proteins, alpha- and beta-catenins, at the linings of adherens junctions. Three-dimensional reconstruction of immunoelectron microscopic serial thin sections showed four linear arrays of N-cadherin arranged longitudinally along the LN beneath the four longitudinal borders of two tSCII processes. In contrast, sensory nerve fibers just proximal to the LNs formed common unmyelinated nerve fibers, in which N-cadherin was located mainly at the mesaxon of type I terminal Schwann cells (tSCIs). These results suggest that the four linear arrays of N-cadherin-mediated junctions adhere the sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes side by side to form the characteristic structure of the LN, and the structural differences between the LNs and the proximal unmyelinated nerve fibers possibly are due to the difference in the pattern of N-cadherin expression between sensory nerve endings and tSCII or tSCI processes.
"Also, ADAM10 has been confirmed as a candidate alpha-secretase responsible for shedding proteins such as cadherins (Reiss et al., 2005, 2006; Schulz et al., 2008). It has been shown previously that Notch/Delta, cadherins, and their intracellular binding partners, the catenins, are involved in hair and feather development (Crowe et al., 1998; Noramly et al., 1999; Chodankar et al., 2003; Kaidoh and Inoué, 2008). For example , similar to ADAM10, beta-catenin is expressed in the epidermal layer of the feather buds (Wu et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of seven members of the ADAM family was investigated by in situ hybridization in the developing feather buds of chicken. The expression profiles of the ADAMs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud, whereas ADAM23 expression is restricted to the bud crest, with a distribution similar to that of sonic hedgehog. ADAM13 is not only expressed in the epidermis, but also in restricted regions of the dermis. Both ADAM12 and ADAM22 are expressed in the dermis of the feather bud, with an opposite mediolateral and anteroposterior polarity. Furthermore, the mRNAs of all investigated ADAMs show regional differences in their expression, for example, in the neck and in the roots of the leg and wing. These results suggest that ADAMs play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation.
"Merkel cells were also strongly labeled, but axons associated with the Merkel cells were never visible. Finally, intense NTPDase3 immunoreactivity was seen in terminal Schwann cells surrounding the bases of hair follicles, clearly identifiable by their unique morphology and bulb-like cell body (Fig. 5B; see also Kaidoh and Inoué, 2008). These Schwann cells envelop the lanceolate endings of myelinated hair follicle afferents; however, the axons themselves were not labeled. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-activated P2X channels and P2Y metabotropic receptors participate in nociceptive signaling. Agonist availability is regulated by nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1), -2, -3, and -8, a family of enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular ATP to generate ADP (a P2Y agonist) and AMP. They provide a major source of extracellular AMP, the substrate for adenosine production by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E), and thereby regulate adenosine (P1) receptor signaling. NTPDases vary in their efficiency of tri- and diphosphate hydrolysis; therefore, which family members are expressed impacts nucleotide availability and half-life. This study employed enzyme activity histochemistry to examine the distribution of ATPase activity and immunohistochemistry for NTPDase1, 2, 3, and 8 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord. Nucleotidase activity was robust in spinal dorsal horn, confirming that nociceptive pathways are a major site of nucleotide transmission. In DRG, extensive staining revealed ATPase activity in a subset of neurons and in non-neuronal cells. mRNA for NTPDase1-3, but not NTPDase8, was detected in lumbar DRG and spinal cord. Immunoreactivity for NTPDase3 closely matched the distribution of ATPase activity, labeling DRG central projections in the dorsal root and superficial dorsal horn, as well as intrinsic spinal neurons concentrated in lamina II. In DRG, NTPDase3 co-localized with markers of nociceptors and with NT5E. In addition, labeling of a subset of larger-diameter neurons in DRG was consistent with intense staining of Meissner corpuscle afferents in glabrous skin. Merkel cells and terminal Schwann cells of hair follicle afferents were also labeled, but the axons themselves were negative. We propose that NTPDase3 is a key regulator of nociceptive signaling that also makes an unexpected contribution to innocuous tactile sensation.
"This is the case around Merkel cells, in Ruffini corpuscles and at the pilo-neural complexes . The presence of two types of terminal Schwann cells around the hair follicle was previously reported (Kaidoh and Inoue, 2008). Heterogeneity between the two types of tSCs is emphasized by collagen XXVIII expression since it surrounds only tSCI, thereby allowing to discriminate these two types of tSCs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicates that collagens perform crucial functions during the development and organization of the nervous system. Collagen XXVIII is a recently discovered collagen almost exclusively expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study, we show that this collagen is associated with nonmyelinated regions of the PNS. With the notable exception of type II terminal Schwann cell in the hairy skin, collagen XXVIII surrounds all nonmyelinating glial cells studied. This includes satellite glial cells of the dorsal root ganglia, terminal Schwann cells type I around mechanoceptors in the skin, terminal Schwann cells around proprioceptors in the muscle spindle or at the neuromuscular junction and olfactory ensheathing cells. Collagen XXVIII is also detected at nodes of Ranvier where the myelin sheath of myelinated fibers is interrupted and is thus a distinctive component of the PNS nodal gap. The correlation between the absence of myelin and the presence of collagen XXVIII is confirmed in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth characterized by dysmyelinated nerve fibers, in which enhancement of collagen XXVIII labeling is observed.
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