N-cadherin expression in palisade nerve endings of rat vellus hairs.

Division of Morphological Analysis, Department of Functional, Morphological and Regulatory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503, Japan.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.66). 03/2008; 506(4):525-34. DOI:10.1002/cne.21550
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Palisade nerve endings (PNs) are mechanoreceptors around vellus hairs of mammals. Each lanceolate nerve ending (LN) of the PN is characterized by a sensory nerve ending symmetrically sandwiched by two processes of type II terminal Schwann cells (tSCIIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the structural organization of the PN are poorly understood. Electron microscopy showed that adherens junctions appeared to adhere to the sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes, so we examined the location of the N-cadherin adhesion system in PNs of rat vellus hairs by using immunoelectron microscopy. N-cadherin localized near both ends of the cell boundary between sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes, which corresponded to the sites of adherens junctions. We further found cadherin-associated proteins, alpha- and beta-catenins, at the linings of adherens junctions. Three-dimensional reconstruction of immunoelectron microscopic serial thin sections showed four linear arrays of N-cadherin arranged longitudinally along the LN beneath the four longitudinal borders of two tSCII processes. In contrast, sensory nerve fibers just proximal to the LNs formed common unmyelinated nerve fibers, in which N-cadherin was located mainly at the mesaxon of type I terminal Schwann cells (tSCIs). These results suggest that the four linear arrays of N-cadherin-mediated junctions adhere the sensory nerve ending and tSCII processes side by side to form the characteristic structure of the LN, and the structural differences between the LNs and the proximal unmyelinated nerve fibers possibly are due to the difference in the pattern of N-cadherin expression between sensory nerve endings and tSCII or tSCI processes.

0 0
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The piloneural collar in mammalian hairy skin comprises an intricate pattern of circumferential and longitudinal sensory afferents that innervate primary and secondary pelage hairs. The longitudinal afferents tightly associate with terminal Schwann cell processes to form encapsulated lanceolate nerve endings of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. The molecular basis for piloneural development, maintenance and function is poorly understood. Here, we show that Nefh-expressing glutamatergic neurons represent a major population of longitudinal and circumferential sensory afferents innervating the piloneural collar. Our findings using a VGLUT2 conditional-null mouse model indicate that glutamate is essential for innervation, patterning and differentiation of NMDAR(+) terminal Schwann cells during piloneural collar development. Similarly, treatment of adult mice with a selective NMDAR antagonist severely perturbed piloneural collar structure and reduced excitability of these mechanosensory neurons. Collectively, these results show that DRG-derived glutamate is essential for the proper development, maintenance and sensory function of the piloneural mechanoreceptor.
    Development 02/2012; 139(4):740-8. · 6.60 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is an occupational neurodegenerative and vasospastic disorder in workers who use powered hand tools. Frequency weighting (ISO 5349) predicts little risk of injury for frequencies >500 HZ. Potentially damaging high frequencies abound in impact tool-generated shock waves. A rat tail impact vibration model was developed to deliver shock-wave vibration from a riveting hammer to simulate bucking bar exposure. Rat tails were vibrated continuously for 12 min. Tail flick withdrawal times were determined for noxious heat. Nerve trunks and skin were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immediately after vibration, the tails were hyperalgesic and had disrupted myelinated axons, fragmented nerve endings, and mast-cell degranulation. By 4 days, the tails were hypoalgesic; nerve endings were lost in the skin. Shock-wave vibration causes severe nerve damage. Frequency weighting seriously underestimates the risk of nerve injury with impact tools.
    Muscle & Nerve 11/2011; 44(5):795-804. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mouse hairy skin, lanceolate complexes associated with three types of hair follicles, guard, awl/auchene and zigzag, serve as mechanosensory end organs. These structures are formed by unique combinations of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs), Aβ RA-LTMRs, Aδ-LTMRs, and C-LTMRs, and their associated terminal Schwann cells (TSCs). In this study, we investigated the organization, ultrastructure, and maintenance of longitudinal lanceolate complexes at each hair follicle subtype. We found that TSC processes at hair follicles are tiled and that individual TSCs host axonal endings of more than one LTMR subtype. Electron microscopic analyses revealed unique ultrastructural features of lanceolate complexes that are proposed to underlie mechanotransduction. Moreover, Schwann cell ablation leads to loss of LTMR terminals at hair follicles while, in contrast, TSCs remain associated with hair follicles following skin denervation in adult mice and, remarkably, become re-associated with newly formed axons, indicating a TSC-dependence of lanceolate complex maintenance and regeneration in adults. DOI:
    eLife. 01/2014; 3:e01901.

Toshiyuki Kaidoh