Diagnosis of Sarcocystis cruzi, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii infections in cattle
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to diagnose Sarcocystis sp. infections in cattle and to detect coinfections by Toxoplasma gondii and/or Neospora caninum. Blood, diaphragm, esophagus, and myocardium from 90 beef cattle from Argentina were collected. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction assays, and direct microscopical examination were carried out. Sarcocysts from myocardium were measured and counted. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the three protozoans was performed. Sarcocystis cruzi sarcocysts were found in 100% of myocardium samples. Sarcocysts per gram ranged from 8 to 380 with higher values found in adult cattle (p < 0.001). T. gondii and N. caninum were not detected by immunohistochemistry. T. gondii DNA was found in myocardium of 2/20 seropositive animals, while N. caninum DNA was not found. Antibodies against S. cruzi were detected in all samples, those against N. caninum in 73% and against T. gondii in 91% of the samples (IFAT titer > or =25). It is concluded that serology by IFAT is a suitable method to diagnose these protozoan infections due to its specific IgG detection; therefore, IFAT may be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of each protozoan infection in coinfected animals.
SourceAvailable from: César FielEdited by Pedro Eduardo Steffan; Cesar A. Fiel ; Carlos M. Entrocasso, 01/2011; Tandil : Grupo Tandilia., ISBN: 978-987-27154-0-3
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus) reared on pasture. The present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). After ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. Blood samples were taken from cows thrice during the first, second, and third trimester of gestation, and a blood sample was collected from 31 calves before colostrum milking. From 76 cows 23 (30.3%) had anti-N. caninum antibodies detected by indirect ELISA (Idexx), and 53 (69.7%) did not. Sixty-four cows that initiated the experiment were negative to N. caninum and 11 became positive either during the second or third trimester of gestation, this mean an infection incidence of 17.2% (11/64). OD for ELISA was higher (OD = 2.08) during the second and third (OD = 2.10) trimesters of pregnancy when compared with the first (OD = 1.81), however, there were no statistical differences (P = 0.45). The vertical transmission was calculated to be 29.0% (9/31), and the risk of vertical transmission of N. caninum in seropositive dams was 26.25 times higher than seronegative animals (OR = 26.25, 2.38 < OR < 289, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the rate of vertical transmission of N. caninum in pregnant zebu beef cows was 29%, and the risk was 26.25 higher in seropositive dams relative to than seronegative animals.Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2014.08.002 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Reports on Sarcocystis-infection of cattle are outdated or lacking in many European countries, including those in the Central-Eastern part of the continent. Therefore, to assess the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among bovids in Hungary, a countrywide survey was initiated. In addition, fulminant deaths of four cattle, that showed clinical signs and post mortem lesions resembling acute sarcocystiosis (¿Dalmeny disease¿), were investigated.Methods During the countrywide survey individual heart and oesophagus samples were collected at slaughterhouses from 151 beef cattle and from 15 buffalo, kept in 31 places of Hungary. Analysis for Sarcocystis spp. was carried out with conventional PCRs for the 18S rDNA gene and gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing of 36 strongly positive samples. Mortality cases were evaluated by histological, molecular, bacteriological and virological analyses of samples from various organs.ResultsAmong slaughtered cattle the rate of Sarcocystis-infection was 66%. S. cruzi was identified as the most prevalent species in aurochs-like breed, and the zoonotic S. hominis in Hungarian grey cattle. Concerning the sudden deaths of cattle, Sarcocystis-infection could not be demonstrated in organs showing haemorrhages, but S. cruzi cysts were present in the muscles. In one case ¿S. sinensis¿ was molecularly identified in the blood (indicating sarcocystaemia). Results of analyses for bacterial/viral pathogens were negative.Conclusions S. cruzi appears to be the most prevalent Sarcocystis sp. in cattle in Hungary, followed by the zoonotic S. hominis. However, the rate of infection with both species was shown to differ between cattle breeds. The suspected role of Sarcocystis spp. as causative agents of the fatal cases could not be confirmed.Parasites & Vectors 02/2015; 8(1):69. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0685-9 · 3.25 Impact Factor