Fenoldopam infusion for renal protection in high-risk cardiac surgery patients: A randomized clinical study
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of fenoldopam in patients at high risk of postoperative acute kidney injury undergoing elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.
A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Setting: Hospital. Participants: One hundred ninety-three patients. Interventions: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to receive a continuous infusion of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg/kg/min (95 patients), or placebo (98 patients) for 24 hours. Patients were included if at least 1 of the following risk factors was present: preoperative serum creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dL, age >70 years, diabetes mellitus, or prior cardiac surgery. Serum creatinine and urinary output were measured at baseline (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 48 hours after surgery (T3). Acute kidney injury was defined as a postoperative serum creatinine level of > or =2 mg/dL with an increase in serum creatinine level of 0.7 mg/dL or greater from preoperative to maximum postoperative values.
Acute kidney injury developed in 12 of 95 (12.6%) patients receiving fenoldopam and in 27 of 98 (27.6%) patients receiving placebo (p = 0.02), whereas renal replacement therapy was started in 0 of 95 and 8 of 98 (8.2%) patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Serum creatinine was similar at baseline (1.8 +/- 0.4 mg/dL v 1.9 +/- 0.3 mg/dL) in the fenoldopam and placebo groups but differed significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) 24 hours (1.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dL v 2.5 +/- 0.6 mg/dL) and 48 hours (1.5 +/- 0.3 mg/dL v 2.8 +/- 0.4 mg/dL) after the operation.
A 24-hour infusion of 0.1 mug/kg/min of fenoldopam prevented acute kidney injury in a high-risk population undergoing cardiac surgery.
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ABSTRACT: A number of methods have been used to try to protect kidney function in patients undergoing surgery. These include the administration of dopamine, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and hydration fluids. For this review, we selected randomized controlled trials, which employed different methods to protect renal function during the perioperative period. In examining these trials, we looked at outcomes such as renal failure and mortality, as well as changes in the renal function tests, including urine output, creatinine clearance, free water clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and renal plasma flow. We searched the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to 2004) and EMBASE (1988 to 2004) and hand searched six journals (British Journal of Anaesthesia; Anesthesia and Analgesia; Anesthesiology; Annals of Surgery; Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and Journal of Vascular Surgery). We selected all randomized controlled trials in adult population undergoing surgery where a treatment measure was used for the purpose of renal protection in the perioperative period. We selected 37 studies for inclusion in this review. As well as analysis of the data from all the studies, we also performed subgroup analysis for type of interventions, types of surgical procedures and those with pre-existing renal dysfunction. We undertook sensitivity analysis on studies with high methodological quality. The review included data from 37 studies, comprising a total of 1227 patients. Of these, 658 received some form of treatment and 569 acted as controls. The interventions were mostly employing different pharmaceutical agents such as dopamine, diuretics, calcium channel blockers. ACE inhibitors or selected hydration fluids. The results indicated that certain interventions showed some benefits, but all the results suffered from significant heterogeneity. Hence we can draw no conclusions about the effectiveness of these interventions in protecting the kidneys during surgery. There is no reliable evidence from available literature to suggest that interventions during surgery can protect the kidneys from damage. However, there is a need for more studies of high methodological quality. One particular area for further studies may be on patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction undergoing surgery.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2005; DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003590.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.Nephron 02/1976; 16(1):31-41. DOI:10.1159/000180580 · 13.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure, frequently a consequence of renal vasoconstriction and subsequent renal ischemia, is a common problem for which no proven preventive or therapeutic agents exist. Fenoldopam is a new, selective, dopamine-1 receptor agonist that causes both systemic and renal arteriolar vasodilation. In hypertensive patients, fenoldopam rapidly decreases blood pressure, increases renal blood flow, and maintains or improves the glomerular filtration rate. We sought to determine a dose of fenoldopam that increases renal blood flow without inducing hypotension in normotensive patients and to explore the role of volume status (sodium replete vs. deplete) in these effects. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Clinical research unit. Fourteen normal male volunteers. Renal plasma flow (para-aminohippurate clearance) and glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance) were measured during three fixed, escalating doses of fenoldopam (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 Lg/kg/min) on both a high-sodium and a low-sodium diet. Fenoldopam significantly increased renal plasma flow in a dose-dependent manner compared with placebo: 670 + 148 vs. 576 + 85 mUmin at 0.03 iLg/kg/min; 777 + 172 vs. 579 + 80 mUmin at 0.1 tig/kg/min; and 784 + 170 vs. 592 + 165 mUmin at 0.3 ilg/kg/min (p < .05 fenoldopam vs. placebo at all three doses). Glomerular filtration rate was maintained. At the lowest dose (i.e., 0.03 ILg/kg/min), significant renal blood flow increases occurred without changes in systemic blood pressure or heart rate. At 0.1 and 0.3 Lgl/kg/ min, systolic blood pressure did not change, but diastolic blood pressure was slightly lower in the fenoldopam group than in the placebo group: 62.5 + 6.4 vs. 63.6 + 2.6 mm Hg, respectively, at 0.3 tg/kg/min (p < .05). None of the effects of fenoldopam were altered by volume status. Fenoldopam increased renal blood flow in a dose-dependent manner compared with placebo, and, at the lowest dose, significantly increased renal blood flow occurred without changes in systemic blood pressure or heart rate. These findings will be useful in designing future studies exploring the role of fenoldopam in preventing or treating renal failure in patients who are not hypertensive.Critical Care Medicine 10/1999; 27(9):1832-7. DOI:10.1097/00003246-199909000-00021 · 6.15 Impact Factor