Significance of chemoprevention for prostate cancer development: Experimental in vivo approaches to chemoprevention
Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan. Pathology International
(Impact Factor: 1.69).
02/2008; 58(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1827.2007.02182.x
Prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men in Western countries and mortality in Asian countries from the disease appears to be constantly increasing. Characteristics include (i) frequent discovery of latent carcinoma, even in countries with low incidences of clinical cancer; (ii) very long time to clinically significant cancer; (iii) few patients under 50 years of age (primarily a disease of elderly men); (iv) strong influences of environmental factors such as food; (v) temporal effectiveness of androgen deprival therapy; and (vi) no effective therapeutic approaches once hormone-refractory neoplasms have developed. Therefore prostate cancer is particularly indicated for preventive efforts, especially chemoprevention. Several large-scale chemoprevention trials have in fact been conducted and some have found suppressive effects. However, not all have been proven to have benefit. Experimental preclinical investigations, particularly using animal models, are recommended to find better chemopreventive agents with less adverse effects. Data using rat models have generated very interesting findings from which mechanism-based strategies can be proposed. In the present report the importance of chemoprevention of prostate cancer will be discussed using the data on human and rat prostate cancer development.
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