Endocrine-disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides.
ABSTRACT The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each) were examined in the Hershberger assay. In the second study, pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole or ketoconazole (50 mg/kg/day each) from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 21. Caesarian sections were performed on dams at GD 21. Tebuconazole and propiconazole demonstrated no antiandrogenic effects at doses between 50 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day in the Hershberger assay. In the in utero exposure toxicity study, ketoconazole, a pharmaceutical to treat human fungal infections, decreased anogenital distance and reduced testicular testosterone levels, demonstrating a demasculinizing effect on male fetuses. Tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole induced a high-frequency of post-implantation loss, and both ketoconazole and epoxiconazole caused a marked increase in late and very late resorptions. Overall the results show that many of the commonly used azole fungicides act as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.
Conference Paper: Design and implementation of real time video processor[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design and implementation of an arithmetic unit for a video filter. The central unit of the video filter consists of six identical chips called Common Arithmetic Unit (CAU's), each of which contains three Common Arithmetic Cells (CAC's). These 64-pin CAU's are assembled on a board in a pipelined architecture to realize real time performance. The throughput rate for the chip is 11.3 Mhz. A constant time pipelined adder design has been proposed and implemented. The absolute delay is stillO(logn). The areaO(nlogn)and absolute delayO(logn)for our adder are within a constant factor of the optimal bounds.Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE International Conference on ICASSP '86.; 01/1986
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ABSTRACT: Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-)androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO), fluconazole (FLUC), flusilazole (FLUS), hexaconazole (HEXA), myconazole (MYC), penconazole (PEN), prochloraz (PRO), tebuconazole (TEBU), triadimefon (TRIA), and triticonazole (TRIT) were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10) cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T) secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM) or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM) in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM) and effect potencies (REPs) were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT). FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61) and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03) AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human) risk assessment of this class of compounds.Toxicology Reports 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the toxic effects of difenoconazole on the development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. To test the toxic effects, frog embryo teratogenesis assays using Xenopus were performed. Embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole (0-30 ). for difenoconazole was 30 , and the determined by probit analysis was 27.19 . Exposure to difenoconazole concentrations 5 resulted in 10 different types of severe external malformation. Histological examinations revealed dysplasia of the eye, heart, liver, somatic muscle, and swelling of the pronephric ducts. The tissue-specific toxic effects were investigated with an animal cap assay. Blood cells were normally induced at a high frequency by mSCF and activin A. However, the induction of blood cells was strongly inhibited by the addition of difenoconazole. Electron micrographs of tested embryos showed the degeneration of somatic muscle and the shrinkage of microvilli on pronephric duct. The gene expression of cultivated animal cap explants was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It revealed that the expression of the blood-specific marker(-globin II) and muscle-specific marker (XMA) were more strongly inhibited than the neural-specific marker(XEn2) by the addition of difenoconazole.Journal of Environmental Science International. 10/2011; 20(10).