S-phase fraction determined on fine needle aspirates is an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer - a multivariate study of 770 patients
ABSTRACT The prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and the S-phase fraction (SPF) have been extensively studied in breast cancer, but their clinical utility remains controversial. The type of tumour material can substantially influence flow cytometric DNA measurements. Material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is very suitable for flow cytometric DNA analysis because it contains a low proportion of non-tumour cells and less debris than tissue samples.
The prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and SPF, determined on FNA samples, was analysed in 770 breast cancer patients, diagnosed between 1992 and 1997. DNA ploidy and SPF were determined at the time of diagnosis as part of the diagnostic work-up. The median follow-up was 90 months. Survival analysis included overall cancer specific survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and survival after recurrence (SAR). Other variables included in survival analyses were age, histological grade, histological type, lymph node status and tumour size. Disease free interval and the site of recurrence were also included in SAR analysis.
DNA ploidy and SPF correlated with tumour type, size, lymph node involvement and, especially, tumour grade. In a univariate analysis, both aneuploidy and high SPF were associated with shorter OS, DFS and SAR, but only SPF retained its independent prognostic significance in multivariate analyses. Independent prognostic variables for OS were node status, histological grade, SPF and tumour size. Node status, histological grade and SPF were independent predictors of DFS, while the site of recurrence, SPF, histological grade, disease free interval and age were independent predictors of SAR.
DNA ploidy and SPF can be efficiently and routinely determined on FNA samples. High SPF is independently associated with a worse clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. Although SPF and histological grade share prognostic information to some degree, SPF provides additional, less subjective prognostic information. The prognostic value of SPF determined on FNA samples could be even more relevant in neoadjuvant settings and for patients not amenable for surgical treatment, when histological grade cannot be assessed.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate 'classic' prognostic parameters, as well as DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction, in relation to disease-free and overall survival in breast invasive ductal carcinoma with long-term follow-up. Material and Methods: The study involved 400 patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma and median follow-up of 134 months (50-240). Histological grading, tumour size, axillary nodal involvement, pathological staging and hormone-receptor status were assessed as established prognostic markers. Ploidy and S-phase fraction were determined prospectively by DNA flow cytometry using fresh/frozen tissue. A Cox regression model was used for statistical analysis of the prognostic variables. Results: There were 106 deaths (26.5%) and 141 disease recurrences (35.2%) during follow-up. Two hundred thirty-five (58.7%) tumours were aneuploid. High S-phase fraction and aneuploidy were associated with tumours with higher grade of differentiation, greater size and negative hormonal receptors. In univariate analysis, all the clinicopathological and cytometric features (including patients < 40 years and a subgroup presenting hipertetraploid/multiploid tumours), but S-phase fraction and estrogen receptors for disease free survival, significantly correlated with clinical outcome. In multivariate analysis, advanced disease stage, DNA aneuploidy and lack of progesterone receptors retained statistically significant association with shorter survival. In the subgroup of patients with intermediate differentiation tumours (G2), aneuploidy associated with worse prognosis. In the subset of node-negative patients, only estrogen receptors showed significant correlation with disease evolution. In node-positive patients, greater size tumours and aneuploidy (in relation to overall survival) were indicators of worse prognosis. Conclusion: Along with disease staging and hormone-receptor expression, DNA ploidy is an independent prognostic biomarker of long-term survival in breast invasive ductal carcinoma.Acta medica portuguesa 25(6):399-407. · 0.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromosomal instability, which is a characteristic of many human cancers, contributes to intratumour heterogeneity and has been functionally implicated in resistance to taxane therapy in tumour models. However, defining the status of tumour chromosomal instability in a given tumour to test this hypothesis remains challenging. Measurements of numerical and structural chromosomal heterogeneity demonstrate that histological grade correlates with chromosomal instability in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Using data on adjuvant taxane therapy in women with breast cancer, we propose that patients with low-grade ER-positive tumours, which are thought to be chromosomally stable, might derive unexpected benefit from taxane therapy. We discuss the implications of the relationships between tumour grade, chromosomal instability and intratumour heterogeneity, the development of high-throughput methods to define tumour chromosomal instability and the potential use of chromosomal instability to tailor therapy.Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 05/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.67 · 15.70 Impact Factor