Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative ataxia characterized by remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity. Although patients frequently report pain, systematic evaluation of this clinical feature is lacking.
To compare the frequency of chronic pain among patients with genetically confirmed MJD, an age- and sex-matched healthy control group, and a disease control group of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
We included 70 patients with MJD, 20 patients with ALS, and 70 control subjects from 2 clinical centers. All individuals underwent assessment with a standardized pain questionnaire. In addition, we used a visual analog scale to quantify pain intensity.
Thirty-three patients with MJD (47%), 3 patients with ALS (15%), and 6 controls (9%) reported chronic pain. Lower back pain preceded ataxia in 6 patients with MJD. Twenty-nine patients with MJD had daily pain, which was continuous in 23. The mean visual analog scale score was 6.1 in patients with MJD. Pain was musculoskeletal in 26 patients with MJD, dystonic in 2, neuropathic in 2, and mixed in 3. Typically, pain was lumbar (n = 17) or in the lower limbs (n = 15). We did not find significant differences regarding duration of disease, sex, or severity of ataxia among patients with MJD with and without chronic pain. Expanded (CAG)(n) tandem repeats were longer in patients with MJD who experienced chronic pain (67.3 vs 65.2; P = .04).
In our series, pain was significantly more frequent in patients with MJD than in controls. Chronic pain was a frequent and often disabling complaint among patients with MJD. The lower back was the most frequently reported location of pain in patients with MJD.
"Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, progressive, and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord . Prevalence of chronic pain (especially located at the arms level) in ALS is estimated around 15–20% [183, 184]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.
Mediators of Inflammation 05/2013; 2013:648268. DOI:10.1155/2013/648268 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"Chronic pain is one of the most disabling symptoms of MJD. Nearly 80% of the chronic pain in MJD has been reported to be of musculoskeletal origin . To the best of our knowledge, no previous case report has mentioned complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in patients with MJD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is a common problem for patients with Machado-Joseph disease. Most of the chronic pain in Machado-Joseph disease has been reported to be of musculoskeletal origin, but now there seems to be different chronic pain in patients with Machado-Joseph disease.
A 29-year-old man (Han Chinese, Hoklo) with Machado-Joseph disease experienced severe chronic pain in both feet, cutaneous thermal change, thermal hypersensitivity, focal edema, and sweating and had a history of bone fracture. These symptoms were compatible with a diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome. After common analgesics failed to relieve his pain, gabapentin was added and titrated to 2000 mg/day (500 mg every six hours) in less than two weeks. This relieved 40% of his pain and led to significant clinical improvement.
The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome includes peripheral and central sensitizations, the latter of which might be associated with the neurodegeneration in Machado-Joseph disease. In this report, we suggest that gabapentin could inhibit central sensitization as an adjunct for complex regional pain syndrome in patients with Machado-Joseph disease.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 07/2011; 5:268. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-5-268
"the mutant allele leads to the onset of neurological symptoms , typically in the third or fourth decade of life. SCA3 patients commonly suffer from motor and mental abnormalities , such as gait ataxia, ocular symptoms, and dementia (Coutinho et al. 1982; Ishikawa et al. 2002; Kawai et al. 2004; França et al. 2007, 2008; Riess et al. 2008). Although the relevant pathogenesis of SCA3 is based on the toxic function of the mutant ataxin-3 protein, the exact mechanism of disease remains elusive (Paulson 2007; Riess et al. 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic disorder resulting from the expansion of the CAG repeats in the ATXN3 gene. The pathogenesis of SCA3 is based on the toxic function of the mutant ataxin-3 protein, but the exact mechanism of the disease remains elusive. Various types of transgenic mouse models explore different aspects of SCA3 pathogenesis, but a knock-in humanized mouse has not yet been created. The initial aim of this study was to generate an ataxin-3 humanized mouse model using a knock-in strategy. The human cDNA for ataxin-3 containing 69 CAG repeats was cloned from SCA3 patient and introduced into the mouse ataxin-3 locus at exon 2, deleting it along with exon 3 and intron 2. Although the human transgene was inserted correctly, the resulting mice acquired the knock-out properties and did not express ataxin-3 protein in any analyzed tissues, as confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Analyses of RNA expression revealed that the entire locus consisting of human and mouse exons was expressed and alternatively spliced. We detected mRNA isoforms composed of exon 1 spliced with mouse exon 4 or with human exon 7. After applying 37 PCR cycles, we also detected a very low level of the correct exon 1/exon 2 isoform. Additionally, we confirmed by bioinformatic analysis that the structure and power of the splicing site between mouse intron 1 and human exon 2 (the targeted locus) was not changed compared with the native mouse locus. We hypothesized that these splicing aberrations result from the deletion of further splicing sites and the presence of a strong splicing site in exon 4, which was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis. In summary, we created a functional ataxin-3 knock-out mouse model that is viable and fertile and does not present a reduced life span. Our work provides new insights into the splicing characteristics of the Atxn3 gene and provides useful information for future attempts to create knock-in SCA3 models.
Neuromolecular medicine 10/2010; 13(1):54-65. DOI:10.1007/s12017-010-8137-3 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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