An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Chem Biol Interact
An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. CFO and ISO inhibited cell proliferation with 48 h IC50 of approximately 30 and 20 microg/ml, respectively. Both induced concentration dependent strong and early apoptosis as measured by various end-points, e.g. annexinV binding, DNA laddering, apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in hypo diploid sub-G0 DNA content during the early 6h period of study. This could be because of early surge in ROS formation with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed. Both CFO and ISO activated apical death receptors TNFR1, DR4 and caspase-8 activity. Simultaneously, both increased the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein with its concomitant release to cytosol leading to caspase-9 activation, suggesting thereby the involvement of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, Bax translocation, and decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB expression predict multi-target effects of the essential oil and ISO while both appeared to follow similar signaling apoptosis pathways. The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.
"Among plant-derived natural products, essential oils, which are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, have recently drawn scientific interest for their medicinal applications    . Essential oils are endowed with various pharmacological effects, including antibacterial , antioxidant , antifungal , and antimutagenic ; and their assorted therapeutic potential has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore their anticancer activities    . Schisandrae semen (Schisandra chinensis [Turcz.] "
"Of several prescription drugs in use for cancer treatment, almost 75% are derived from plant species (Craig, 1999). It is surprising to note that essential oils, which are found abundantly in nature, have never been exploited for their anticancer potential, although they have found extensive use in perfumery, aromatherapy, food and flavors, etc. since ages (Kumar et al., 2008). Many essential oils or their constituents are known to be the potent antibacterial as well as anti-fungal agents. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oils isolated from Tagetes minuta L. flowers and Ocimum basilicum L. herb were analyzed
by GC/MS and assessed for antioxidant and in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Also biological
effects of these essential oils on normal mice were studied. The major components of marigold
essential oil were cis-β-ocimene (54.82%), cis-tagetone (11.50%) and trans-tagetenone (10.78%),
cistagetenone (7.10%), dihydrotagetone (6.50%) and limonene (3.82%). The major components of basil
essential oil were estragole (75.45%), 1,8-cineole (7.56%), linalool (5.01%), trans-anethole (3.72%) and
methyleugenol (3.48%). The DPPH
scavenging activities of both essential oils were determined. 50%
effective concentration (EC50) of marigold essential oil (86.35 �g/ml) was higher than basil essential oil
(80.84 �g/ml). The anticancer activity of the two essential oils on two human promyelocytic leukemia
cell lines (HL-60 and NB4) and experimental animals model cancer cell line (EACC) were investigated in
vitro. The results indicated that the anticancer activity of marigold essential oil was higher than basil
essential oil against NB4 and EACC cell lines, while basil essential oil was higher than marigold
essential oil against HL-60 cell line. In in vivo study, pre-initiation treatments with the both essential oils
were more effective than initiation and post-initiation treatments, respectively on the tumor (EACC)
transplanted female mice. Biological effects of both essential oils on normal mice indicated that all the
obtained values in all experimental animals were within the normal range.
"They are also used in embalment , preservation of foods and as sedative, spasmolytic and locally anesthesic remedies. The application of essential oils in the anti-cancer therapy may appear unconventional however their easy availability, pleasant aroma and low or insignificant toxicity make them more attractive candidates for the long term treatment of various chronic ailments (Kumar et al., 2008). Therefore, there exists high hope for effective treatment of different cancers by systematic screening of a variety of essential oil based natural products. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the apoptosis inducing effect of essential oil (EO) from aerial parts of Ocimumviride in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (COLO 205 cell line). The COLO 205 cells were exposed to 0.0125-0.1 microl/ml of EO for 24, 48 and 72h. Growth inhibition was determined by sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. Double staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide for nuclear changes was performed. Cell cycle analysis and change in mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by flow cytometry. Subsequently, using annexin V/PI assay, the proportion of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined. Changes in DNA were observed by DNA ladder assay. Eventually the surface morphology of apoptotic cells was studied by scanning electron microscopy. EO is cytotoxic to COLO 205 cells in dose and time-dependent manner, as is evident by SRB assay. This observed cell death was due to apoptosis, as established by annexin V/PI assay, DNA ladder formation and scanning electron microscopy. Our results reveal that EO has apoptosis inducing effect against COLO 205 cells in vitro and is a promising candidate for further anti-cancer study.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2009; 48(1):336-44. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.021 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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