An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.
ABSTRACT An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. CFO and ISO inhibited cell proliferation with 48 h IC50 of approximately 30 and 20 microg/ml, respectively. Both induced concentration dependent strong and early apoptosis as measured by various end-points, e.g. annexinV binding, DNA laddering, apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in hypo diploid sub-G0 DNA content during the early 6h period of study. This could be because of early surge in ROS formation with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed. Both CFO and ISO activated apical death receptors TNFR1, DR4 and caspase-8 activity. Simultaneously, both increased the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein with its concomitant release to cytosol leading to caspase-9 activation, suggesting thereby the involvement of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, Bax translocation, and decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB expression predict multi-target effects of the essential oil and ISO while both appeared to follow similar signaling apoptosis pathways. The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.
SourceAvailable from: Imael H N Bassolé[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. Over a hundred essential oils from more than twenty plant families have been tested on more than twenty types of cancers in last past ten years. This review is focused on the activity of essential oils and their com-ponents on various types of cancers. For some of them the mechanisms involved in their anticancer activities have been carried out. Introduction Recognized since ancient times for their medic-inal value, but often considered as a relic of medieval medical practice by representatives of modern medicine, essential oils (EOs) are currently receiving therapeutic interest fully renewed. Thus, during recent years, plant EOs have come more into the focus of phytomedi-cine [1, 2]. Their widespread use has raised the interest of scientists in basic research of EOs. Especially, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities as well as potential anti-cancer activ-ity have been investigated in recent years [3, 4]. Cancer is the second largest single cause of death claiming over six million lives every year worldwide . There has been a recent upsurge in the use of natural products to supersede cur-rent treatment in patients that develop multi-drug resistance. Scientific studies of plants used in various types of ethnic medicine has led to the discovery of many valuable drugs, including taxol, camptothecin, vincristine and vinblastine [6, 7]. Many studies pointed out anticancer properties of other plants [8-11]. Over five hundred papers have been published on anticancer activity of EOs. The first publica-tions on the anticancer activity of essential oils dated to 1960s. So far, the effects of EOs have been investigated on glioblastoma, melanoma, leukemia and oral cancers, as well as on bone, breast, cervix, colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and uterus cancers. The aim of this review is to state the work car-ried out on the anticancer properties of EOs, their mode of action and the types of cancers targeted.
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ABSTRACT: The present work evaluates the anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative stress effect of seven essential oils supplementations on Tetrahymena thermophila growth. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitroprusside were used to create oxidative and nitrosative stress, respectively. Results showed that the two agents of stress modify the growth curve of the protozoan. The protective effect of lavender, geranium, thyme, rosemary, cypress, juniper and clove essential oils were assessed. These essential oils act differently depending on the type of stress and the plants from which they arise. Most of them remarkably increase the cell number at the exponential phase. Moreover, the synergistic interaction between essential oils does not seem to be stress type selective, and significantly reduce both oxidative and nitrosative stress especially at the exponential phase of growth.Journal of Essential Oil Research 08/2013; 25(4):339-347. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2013.775681 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts, was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The oil contains 69.1 % of sesquiterpenes and 20 % of monoterpenes. The most abundant essential oil components were 1,8-cineole (7.6 %), terpin-4-ol (6.1 %), epi-a-cadinol (27.3 %), caryophyllene oxide (10.5 %), y-cadinene (9.1 %), spathulenol (8.6 %), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (4.4 %) and 7-epi-a-eudesmol (2.3 %). The leaf essential oil showed pronounced in-vitro cytotoxic activity against K562 (0.89 μg/mL) and NCI-ADR/RES (3.40 μg/mL) human tumor cell lines. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and allelophathic activities of essential oil were also evaluated.Journal of essential oil-bearing plants JEOP 01/2011; 14(5):590-599. DOI:10.1080/0972060X.2011.10643976 · 0.19 Impact Factor