Extracellular ATP is a pro-angiogenic factor for pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, B131, 4200 East 9th Ave, Denver, CO 80262, USA.
Angiogenesis (Impact Factor: 4.88). 02/2008; 11(2):169-82. DOI: 10.1007/s10456-007-9087-8
Source: PubMed


Expansion of the vasa vasorum network has been observed in a variety of systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. We recently reported that a marked expansion of the vasa vasorum network occurs in the pulmonary artery adventitia of chronically hypoxic calves. Since hypoxia has been shown to stimulate ATP release from both vascular resident as well as circulatory blood cells, these studies were undertaken to determine if extracellular ATP exerts angiogenic effects on isolated vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) and/or if it augments the effects of other angiogenic factors (VEGF and basic FGF) known to be present in the hypoxic microenvironment. We found that extracellular ATP dramatically increases DNA synthesis, migration, and rearrangement into tube-like networks on Matrigel in VVEC, but not in pulmonary artery (MPAEC) or aortic (AOEC) endothelial cells obtained from the same animals. Extracellular ATP potentiated the effects of both VEGF and bFGF to stimulate DNA synthesis in VVEC but not in MPAEC and AOEC. Analysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides revealed that ATP, ADP and MeSADP were the most potent in stimulating mitogenic responses in VVEC, indicating the involvement of the family of P2Y1-like purinergic receptors. Using pharmacological inhibitors, Western blot analysis, and Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) in vitro kinase assays, we found that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 play a critical role in mediating the extracellular ATP-induced mitogenic and migratory responses in VVEC. However, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K do not significantly contribute to extracellular ATP-induced tube formation on Matrigel. Our studies indicate that VVEC, isolated from the sites of active angiogenesis, exhibit distinct functional responses to ATP, compared to endothelial cells derived from large pulmonary or systemic vessels. Collectively, our data support the idea that extracellular ATP participates in the expansion of the vasa vasorum that can be observed in hypoxic conditions.

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Available from: Evgenia V Gerasimovskaya, Oct 01, 2015
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    • "Hence, in the present study it cannot be excluded that non-proteiceous compounds might participate at least in part in influencing the endothelial cell activity reported here. Among the different molecules that can be found in the conditioned medium, the compounds of the cellular metabolism as citrate [39], ATP [40] or 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE, an eicosanoid) [41] have been shown to promote angiogenesis directly activating AKT and ERK or synergizing growth factors action. Hence, the dissection of conditioned medium components and signaling pathway activation in target cells can be considered the two sides of the same coin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis and vascular remodelling are crucial events in tissue repair mechanisms promoted by cell transplantation. Current evidence underscores the importance of the soluble factors secreted by stem cells in tissue regeneration. In the present study we investigated the effects of paracrine factors derived from cultured endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) on rat brain endothelial cell properties and addressed the signaling pathways involved. Endothelial cells derived from rat brain (rBCEC4) were incubated with EPC-derived conditioned medium (EPC-CM). The angiogenic response of rBCEC4 to EPC-CM was assessed as effect on cell number, migration and tubular network formation. In addition, we have compared the outcome of the in vitro experiments with the effects on capillary sprouting from rat aortic rings. The specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 were used to study the involvement of these two signaling pathways in the transduction of the angiogenic effects of EPC-CM. Viable cell number, migration and tubule network formation were significantly augmented upon incubation with EPC-CM. Similar findings were observed for aortic ring outgrowth with significantly longer sprouts. The EPC-CM-induced activities were significantly reduced by the blockage of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Similarly to the outcome of the rBCEC4 experiments, inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways significantly interfered with capillary sprouting induced by EPC-CM. The present study demonstrates that EPC-derived paracrine factors substantially promote the angiogenic response of brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, our findings identified the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways to play a central role in mediating these effects.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95731. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095731 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "VVEC were isolated from the pulmonary artery adventitia of normoxic (two-week kept at ambient Denver altitude; PB = 640 mmHg) and chronically hypoxic (two-week exposed to hypobaric hypoxia; PB = 430 mmHg) male Holstein calves as previously described [9]. Standard veterinary care was used following institutional guidelines, and the procedure was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Colorado State Univ., Ft. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co) or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp) neonatal calves. We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs). However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced permeability in VVEC-Co, validating its anti-inflammatory effects. We demonstrate for the first time that stimulation of A1Rs enhances the barrier function in VVEC by activation of the Gi/PI3K/Akt pathway and remodeling of actin microfilament.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(4):e59733. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059733 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It is known that release of ATP from cancer cells contributes to cancer growth and malignancy through P2 receptor activation. For example, P2Y receptor activation induced proliferation of cancer cells (Tu et al., 2000) and promoted angiogenesis by activation of vascular endothelial cells (Gerasimovskaya et al., 2008). As for P2X7 receptor, Baricordi et al. (1999) reported that transfection of P2X7 receptor enhanced proliferation of K562 and LG14 cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner via release of ATP. "
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    ABSTRACT: The P2X7 receptor is not only involved in cell proliferation, but also acts as an adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated non-selective channel, and its expression is increased in human melanoma. An irreversible antagonist of P2X7, such as oxidized ATP (oxATP), might block P2X7 receptor-mediated ATP release and proliferative signaling. Therefore, we carried out basic studies to test this idea and to examine the feasibility of using oxATP to treat B16 melanoma. We first found that low-pH conditions (mimicking the hypoxia and acidosis commonly seen in solid tumors) induced P2X7 receptor-mediated ATP release from B16 melanoma cells. Then, we compared the proliferation rates of B16 melanoma wild-type cells and B16 P2X7 receptor-knockdown clone (P2X7-KDC) cells in the presence of P2X7 agonists. The proliferation rate, as well as the ATP release, of agonist-treated P2X7-KDC cells was lower than that of agonist-treated wild-type cells. Next, the effect of P2X7 antagonist oxATP on B16 melanoma cell growth was examined in vitro and in vivo. oxATP significantly decreased B16 melanoma cell proliferation in vitro, and also significantly inhibited tumor growth in B16 melanoma-bearing mice. These data indicate that extracellularly released ATP may serve as an intercellular signaling molecule. We propose that the P2X7 receptor is a promising target for treatment of solid tumors.
    European journal of pharmacology 09/2012; 695(1-3):20-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.09.001 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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