Impact exercise increases BMC during growth: an 8-year longitudinal study.

Bone Research Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.04). 08/2008; 23(7):986-93. DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.071201
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our aim was to assess BMC of the hip over 8 yr in prepubertal children who participated in a 7-mo jumping intervention compared with controls who participated in a stretching program of equal duration. We hypothesized that jumpers would gain more BMC than control subjects. The data reported come from two cohorts of children who participated in separate, but identical, randomized, controlled, school-based impact exercise interventions and reflect those subjects who agreed to long-term follow-up (N = 57; jumpers = 33, controls = 24; 47% of the original participants). BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, 7 and 19 mo after intervention, and annually thereafter for 5 yr (eight visits over 8 yr). Multilevel random effects models were constructed and used to predict change in BMC from baseline at each measurement occasion. After 7 mo, those children that completed high-impact jumping exercises had 3.6% more BMC at the hip than control subjects whom completed nonimpact stretching activities (p < 0.05) and 1.4% more BMC at the hip after nearly 8 yr (BMC adjusted for change in age, height, weight, and physical activity; p < 0.05). This provides the first evidence of a sustained effect on total hip BMC from short-term high-impact exercise undertaken in early childhood. If the benefits are sustained into young adulthood, effectively increasing peak bone mass, fracture risk in the later years could be reduced.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence strongly supports a positive, causal effect of physical activity on bone strength and suggests long-term benefits of childhood physical activity to the prevention of osteoporosis. The contribution of healthy bone development in youth is likely to be as important to fracture prevention as the amount of late adulthood bone loss. Families, schools (particularly physical education), and communities are key settings for health promotion focused on bone-enhancing physical activity. However, little research has explored the topic of health promotion and physical education as they pertain to bone health, so best practices are not known. Based on our understanding of the literature, we present the top 10 research questions in health promotion and physical education that should be answered to advance bone-enhancing physical activity in children and adolescents.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 03/2015; 86(1):5-12. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to evaluate effects on bone mineral content (BMC) in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) standing on a self-controlled dynamic platform (vibrations, jumps and rotation), assess reactions expressed and record negative effects. An experimental design was used. Four children with severe CP participated. Two children used the platform for 8–9 months while two children were controls (period I). After 1 year, the former users were controls (period II). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed. Children in period I (Child 1/Child 2) were exposed to whole body vibration for 330/394 min on 28/25 occasions and showed a percentage change in BMC values at the lumbar spine of +35/+23% (versus controls, Child 3/Child 4, −9/+7%), left legs −9/ −12% (vs. −2/ −12%) and right legs +61/+34% (vs. −18/+10%). Children in period II (Child 3/Child 4) were exposed for 524/635 min on 57/64 occasions. The corresponding percentage change in BMC values at the lumbar spine was +10/+10% (+21/+5%), left legs +26/+22% (0/+5%) and right legs +26/+17% (+15/ −1%). The children's reactions were perceived positive. No negative effects were recorded. Standing on a self-controlled dynamic platform may be an enjoyable method to increase BMC in children with severe CP.
    Advances in Physiotherapy 08/2012; 14(3).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone strains resulting from physical activity are thought to be a primary driver of bone adaptation, but cannot be directly noninvasively measured. Because bone adapts nonuniformly, physical activity may make an important independent structural contribution to bone strength that is independent of bone mass and density. Our objective was to create and validate methods for subject-specific finite element (FE) model generation that would accurately predict the surface strains experienced by the distal radius during an in vivo loading task, and to apply these methods to a group of 23 women aged 23-35 to examine variations in strain, bone mass and density, and physical activity. Four cadaveric specimens were experimentally tested and specimen-specific FE models were developed to accurately predict periosteal surface strains (root mean square error=16.3%). In the living subjects, when 300N load was simulated, mean strains were significantly inversely correlated with BMC (r=-0.893), BMD (r=-0.892) and physical activity level (r=-0.470). Although the group of subjects was relatively homogenous, BMD varied by two-fold (range: 0.19-0.40g/cm(3)) and mean energy-equivalent strain varied by almost six-fold (range: 226.79-1328.41με) with a simulated 300N load. In summary, we have validated methods for estimating surface strains in the distal radius that occur while leaning onto the palm of the hand. In our subjects, strain varied widely across individuals, and was inversely related to bone parameters that can be measured using clinical CT, and inversely related to physical activity history.
    Journal of Biomechanics 05/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014