Coordination "oligomers" in self-assembly reactions of some "tritopic" picolinic dihydrazone ligands-mononuclear, dinuclear, hexanuclear, heptanuclear, and nonanuclear examples.
ABSTRACT "Tritopic" picolinic dihydrazone ligands with tridentate coordination pockets are designed to produce homoleptic [3 x 3] nonanuclear square grid complexes on reaction with transition-metal salts, and many structurally documented examples have been obtained with Mn(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) ions. However, other oligomeric complexes with smaller nuclearities have also been discovered and identified structurally in some reactions involving Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), with certain tritopic ligands. This illustrates the dynamic nature of the metal-ligand interaction and the conformationally flexible nature of the ligands and points to the possible involvement of some of these species as intermediates in the [3 x 3] grid formation process. Examples of mononuclear, dinuclear, hexanuclear, heptanuclear, and nonanuclear species involving Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) salts with a series of potentially heptadentate picolinic dihydrazone ligands with pyrazine, pyrimidine, and pyridine end groups are described in the present study. Iron and cobalt complexation reactions are complicated by redox processes, which lead to mixed-oxidation-state Co(II)/Co(III) systems when starting with Co(II) salts, and reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) when starting with Fe(III). Magnetic exchange within the polynuclear structural frameworks is discussed and related to the structural features.