Signal transduction pathways involved in protective effects of melatonin in C6 glioma cells.
ABSTRACT Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an indole hormone, is the chief secretory product of the pineal gland and is an efficient free radical scavenger and antioxidant, both in vitro and in vivo. The role of melatonin as an immunomodulator is, in some cases, contradictory. Although melatonin is reported to influence a variety of inflammatory and immune responses, evidence supporting its effects on important glioma cells-derived mediators is incomplete. We studied, in rat glioma cell line (C6), the role of melatonin (100 microm-1 mm) in the regulation of the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) caused by incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-gamma (1 microg/mL and 100 U/mL, respectively) and defined the mode of melatonin's action. Treatment with LPS/IFN-gamma for 24 hr elicited the induction of inducible (iNOS) activity as determined by nitrite and nitrate (NO(x)) accumulation in the culture medium. Preincubation with melatonin abrogated the mixed cytokines-mediated induction of iNOS. The effect of melatonin was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that melatonin inhibited LPS/IFN-gamma-induced expression of COX-2 protein, but not that of constitutive cyclooxygenase. Inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression was associated with inhibition of activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). The ability of melatonin to inhibit NF-kappaB activation was further confirmed by studies on the degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaB-alpha. Increased production of lipid peroxidation products using thiobarbituric acid assay were found in cellular contents from activated cultures. Lipid peroxidation was decreased by melatonin treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, several genes having roles in heat-shock response were downregulated in melatonin-treated cells, such as 70 proteins, reflecting the reduced oxidative stress in these cells. The mechanisms underlying in vitro the neuroprotective properties of melatonin involve modulation of transcription factors and consequent altered gene expression, resulting in downregulation of inflammation.
- SourceAvailable from: Burkhard PoeggelerThe Open Physiology Journal 01/2008; 1(1):1-22.
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ABSTRACT: We have shown that melatonin attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the risk of hemorrhagic transformation following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Herein, we investigate the possible involvement of the plasminogen/plasmin system and endogenous MMPs inhibitor underlying the melatonin-mediated MMP-9 inhibition. Mice were subjected to 1-hr ischemia and 48-hr reperfusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Melatonin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was intravenously injected upon reperfusion. Brain infarction and hemorrhagic transformation were measured. Extracellular matrix damage was determined by Western immunoblot analysis for laminin protein. The activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography, in situ zymography, and Western immunoblot analysis. In addition, the activities of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA) were evaluated by plasminogen-dependent casein zymography. Endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1) were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblot analysis, respectively. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced increased MMP-9 activity and expression at 12-48 hr after reperfusion onset. Relative to controls, melatonin-treated animals had significantly decreased MMP-9 activity and expression (P<0.05), in addition to reduced brain infarction and hemorrhagic transformation as well as improved laminin protein preservation. This melatonin-mediated MMP-9 inhibition was accompanied by reduced uPA activity (P<0.05), as well as increased TIMP-1 expression and PAI activity (P<0.05, respectively). These results demonstrate the melatonin's pluripotent mechanisms for attenuating postischemic MMP-9 activation and neurovascular damage, and further support it as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke patients.Journal of Pineal Research 11/2010; 49(4):332-41. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Melatonin is involved in many physiological functions and it plays an important role in many pathological processes as well. Melatonin has been shown to reduce the incidence of experimentally induced cancers and can significantly inhibit the growth of some human tumors, namely hormone-dependent cancers. The anticancer effects of melatonin have been observed in breast cancer, both in in vivo with models of chemically induced rat mammary tumors, and in vitro studies on human breast cancer cell lines. Melatonin acts at different physiological levels and its antitumoral properties are supported by a set of complex, different mechanisms of action, involving apoptosis activation, inhibition of proliferation, and cell differentiation.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 09/2012; · 5.62 Impact Factor