Interleukin 7 Regulates the Survival and Generation of Memory CD4 Cells

Department of Immunology, The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, 10835 Altman Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 01/2004; 198(12):1797-806. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20030735
Source: PubMed


Cytokines, particularly those of the common gamma chain receptor family, provide extrinsic signals that regulate naive CD4 cell survival. Whether these cytokines are required for the maintenance of memory CD4 cells has not been rigorously assessed. In this paper, we examined the contribution of interleukin (IL) 7, a constitutively produced common gamma chain receptor cytokine, to the survival of resting T cell receptor transgenic memory CD4 cells that were generated in vivo. IL-7 mediated the survival and up-regulation of Bcl-2 by resting memory CD4 cells in vitro in the absence of proliferation. Memory CD4 cells persisted for extended periods upon adoptive transfer into intact or lymphopenic recipients, but not in IL-7- mice or in recipients that were rendered deficient in IL-7 by antibody blocking. Both central (CD62L+) and effector (CD62L-) memory phenotype CD4 cells required IL-7 for survival and, in vivo, memory cells were comparable to naive CD4 cells in this regard. Although the generation of primary effector cells from naive CD4 cells and their dissemination to nonlymphoid tissues were not affected by IL-7 deficiency, memory cells failed to subsequently develop in either the lymphoid or nonlymphoid compartments. The results demonstrate that IL-7 can have previously unrecognized roles in the maintenance of memory in the CD4 cell population and in the survival of CD4 cells with a capacity to become memory cells.

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Available from: Linda Bradley, Dec 05, 2014
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    • "Not only in health, but also in disease, IL-7 has been shown to play an important role in T cell expansion and enhancement of T cell-driven immunity. Addition of IL-7 increases T cell numbers and functionality in immunodeficient states due to HIV infection, chemotherapy, and after bone marrow transplantation [2], [3], [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the potential synergy of IL-7-driven T cell-dependent and TLR7-mediated B cell activation and to assess the additive effects of monocyte/macrophages in this respect. Isolated CD19 B cells and CD4 T cells from healthy donors were co-cultured with TLR7 agonist (TLR7A, Gardiquimod), IL-7, or their combination with or without CD14 monocytes/macrophages (T/B/mono; 1 : 1 : 0,1). Proliferation was measured using 3H-thymidine incorporation and Ki67 expression. Activation marker (CD19, HLA-DR, CD25) expression was measured by FACS analysis. Immunoglobulins were measured by ELISA and release of cytokines was measured by Luminex assay. TLR7-induced B cell activation was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7-induced T cell activation alone and together with TLR7A synergistically increased numbers of both proliferating (Ki67+) B cells and T cells, which was further increased in the presence of monocytes/macrophages. This was associated by up regulation of activation markers on B cells and T cells. Additive or synergistic induction of production of immunoglobulins by TLR7 and IL-7 was associated by synergistic induction of T cell cytokines (IFNγ, IL-17A, IL-22), which was only evident in the presence of monocytes/macrophages. IL-7-induced CD4 T cell activation and TLR7-induced B cell activation synergistically induce T helper cell cytokine and B cell immunoglobulin production, which is critically dependent on monocytes/macrophages. Our results indicate that previously described increased expression of IL-7 and TLR7 together with increased numbers of macrophages at sites of inflammation in autoimmune diseases like RA and pSS significantly contributes to enhanced lymphocyte activation.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94756. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094756 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Signals from recognition of self-peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (sp-MHC), and IL-7, promote cell survival. Naive T cell survival is impaired when removing access to one of these signals (10–14). Of interest are the mechanisms by which these signals are regulated, and that result in a stable number of naive T cells throughout the lifetimes of mice and humans. "
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    ABSTRACT: We develop a mathematical model of the peripheral naive T cell population to study the change in human naive T cell numbers from birth to adulthood, incorporating thymic output and the availability of interleukin-7 (IL-7). The model is formulated as three ordinary differential equations: two describe T cell numbers, in a resting state and progressing through the cell cycle. The third is introduced to describe changes in IL-7 availability. Thymic output is a decreasing function of time, representative of the thymic atrophy observed in aging humans. Each T cell is assumed to possess two interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) signaling thresholds: a survival threshold and a second, higher, proliferation threshold. If the IL-7R signaling strength is below its survival threshold, a cell may undergo apoptosis. When the signaling strength is above the survival threshold, but below the proliferation threshold, the cell survives but does not divide. Signaling strength above the proliferation threshold enables entry into cell cycle. Assuming that individual cell thresholds are log-normally distributed, we derive population-average rates for apoptosis and entry into cell cycle. We have analyzed the adiabatic change in homeostasis as thymic output decreases. With a parameter set representative of a healthy individual, the model predicts a unique equilibrium number of T cells. In a parameter range representative of persistent viral or bacterial infection, where naive T cell cycle progression is impaired, a decrease in thymic output may result in the collapse of the naive T cell repertoire.
    Frontiers in Immunology 12/2013; 4:434. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00434
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    • "Angiogenesis is the key step in tumor growth, which provides necessary oxygen and nutrients for the tumor [43]. We next investigated the effect of BMX on tumor growth using a mouse xenograft colorectal tumor model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis occurs during tissue growth, development and wound healing. It is also required for tumor progression and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX), derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, an active ingredient isolated from Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., was recently shown to enhance learning and memory in rats. In this study, we characterized the anti-angiogenic activities of NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX) in an effort to develop novel inhibitors to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. BMX inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and endothelial tube formation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). BMX also attenuated VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and reduced HCT116 colorectal cancer cells-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, BMX inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, FAK, Akt and ERK in HUVECs exposed to VEGF. BMX was also shown to inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation and to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. Taken together, this study provides evidence that BMX modulates vascular endothelial cell remodeling and leads to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These results also support the role of BMX as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81592. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081592 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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