Vasospasm probability index: a combination of transcranial Doppler velocities, cerebral blood flow, and clinical risk factors to predict cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
ABSTRACT The goal in this study was to create an index (vasospasm probability index [VPI]) to improve diagnostic accuracy for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Seven hundred ninety-five patients in whom aneurysmal SAH was demonstrated by computed tomography, and in whom one or more intracranial aneurysms had been diagnosed, underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) studies between April 1998 and January 2000. In 154 patients angiography was performed within 24 hours of the TCD examination, and in 75 133Xe cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were obtained the same day. Seven cases were excluded because of a limited sonographic window. Forty-one women (60.3%) and 27 men (39.7%) between the ages of 35 and 84 years (58.0 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- standard deviation]) were included. Clinical characteristics analyzed included age, sex, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, days after SAH, day of treatment, type of treatment (coil embolization, surgical clip occlusion, or conservative treatment), smoking history, and hypertension history. Lindegaard ratios and spasm indexes (TCD velocities/hemispheric CBF) were calculated bilaterally. Digital subtraction angiography images were measured at specific points of interest. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and global accuracy of the different tests were calculated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the possible predictive factors, and the coefficients of the logistic regression were integrated to create the VPI.
In 18 patients (26.5%) symptomatic vasospasm was diagnosed, and 33 (48.5%) had angiographic evidence of vasospasm. For TCD velocities above 120 cm/second at the middle cerebral artery, the global accuracy was 81.1% for the diagnosis of clinical vasospasm and 77.2% for angiographic vasospasm. For a Lindegaard ratio higher than 3.0, the accuracy was 85% for clinical vasospasm and 83.2% for angiographic vasospasm. A spasm index higher than 3.5 had an accuracy of 82.0% for the diagnosis of clinical vasospasm and 81.6% for angiographic vasospasm. The selected model for estimation of clinical vasospasm included Fisher grade, Hunt and Hess grade, and spasm index. The VPI had a global accuracy of 92.9% for clinical vasospasm detection. For diagnosis of angiographic vasospasm, the model included Fisher grade, Hunt and Hess grade, and Lindegaard ratio. The VPI achieved a global accuracy of 89.9% for angiographic vasospasm detection.
The use of TCD velocities, Lindegaard ratio, and spasm index independently is of limited value for the diagnosis of clinical and angiographic vasospasm. The combination of predictive factors associated with the development of vasospasm in the new index reported here has a significantly superior accuracy compared with the independent tests and may become a valuable tool for the clinician to evaluate the individual probability of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH.
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ABSTRACT: In the first weeks following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular alterations may impact the outcome significantly. Diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm and detection of alterations at risk of delayed cerebral ischemia are key targets to be monitored in the post-acute phase. Available tools include clinical monitoring, as well as studies that can detect possible arterial narrowing, alterations of perfusion, metabolism and neurophysiology. Each technique is able to investigate possible vascular impairment and has different advantages and limits. All available techniques have been described. Among these, the most practical have been selected and compared for their peculiar characteristics. Based on this analysis, a flowchart to monitor these patients is finally proposed.Neurosurgical Review 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10143-015-0617-3 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Secondary ischemic injury is common after acute brain injury and can be evaluated with the use of neuromonitoring devices. This manuscript provides guidelines for the use of devices to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF) in critically ill patients. A Medline search was conducted to address essential pre-specified questions related to the utility of CBF monitoring. Peer-reviewed recommendations were constructed according to the GRADE criteria based upon the available supporting literature. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) are predictive of angiographic vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. TCD and TCCS may be beneficial in identifying vasospasm after traumatic brain injury. TCD and TCCS have shortcomings in identifying some secondary ischemic risks. Implantable thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF) probes may provide real-time continuous quantitative assessment of ischemic risks. Data are lacking regarding ischemic thresholds for TDF or their correlation with ischemic injury and clinical outcomes.TCD and TCCS can be used to monitor CBF in the neurocritical care unit. Better and more developed methods of continuous CBF monitoring are needed to limit secondary ischemic injury in the neurocritical care unit.Neurocritical Care 09/2014; 21(S2). DOI:10.1007/s12028-014-0021-9 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Cerebral vasospasm (VS) and resulting delayed ischemic brain injury constitute the most severe secondary complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Identification of early clinical predictors of developing vasospasm and poor outcome has remained a major challenge in neurointensive care medicine. Aim of the present study was analyse the relevance of spontaneous changes in blood pressures and their predictive value for predicting vasospasm as well as adverse clinical outcome. Methods 98 aneurysmal SAH patients were analysed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two study groups: 1. VS+ (developing VS), 2. VS- (not developing VS). Repeat-angiography was routinely performed on day 8 after SAH or earlier if clinical signs were suggestive for overt vasospasm. Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were averaged hourly and plotted over time. Secondly, blood pressure (BP)-progression was analyzed with respect to clinical outcomes as assessed by the Glasgow outcome scale. Results Mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure values progressed in both VS- and VS+ cohorts over time. However, as early as 4 days after SAH a significant dissociation of RR curves was observed between the groups with patients in the VS+ group displaying a significantly higher slope coefficient of blood pressure elevation. An increase of mean arterial pressure >20% within the first 4 days was predictive of developing vasospasm. Elevation of mean arterial blood pressure in the VS+ group was mainly attributable to changes in diastolic pressure. Elevation of mean arterial blood pressure >25% within the first week after SAH was associated with unfavourable outcome. Conclusions SAH leads to spontaneous and progressive elevations in mean arterial blood pressure. Vasospasm might be anticipated by identifying early elevations of mean arterial blood pressure. Finally, spontaneous elevations of mean arterial blood pressure correlate with poorer outcomes.Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 10/2014; 125. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.06.023 · 1.25 Impact Factor