Mitochondrial DNA damage triggers mitochondrial-superoxide generation and apoptosis

Department of Pharmacolgy, College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.
AJP Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 03/2008; 294(2):C413-22. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00362.2007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, it has become apparent that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage can rapidly initiate apoptosis independent of mutations, although the mechanism involved remains unclear. To elucidate this mechanism, angiotensin II-mediated apoptosis was studied in cells that were transduced with a lentiviral vector to overexpress the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase or were treated with inhibitors known to block angiotensin II-induced mtDNA damage. Cells exhibiting angiotensin II-induced mtDNA damage showed two phases of superoxide generation, the first derived from NAD(P)H oxidase and the second of mitochondrial origin, whereas cells prevented from experiencing mtDNA damage importantly exhibited only the first phase. Furthermore, cells with mtDNA damage demonstrated impairments in mitochondrial protein expression, cellular respiration, and complex 1 activity before the onset of the second phase of oxidation. After the second phase, the mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed, cytochrome c was released, and the cells underwent apoptosis, all of which were prevented by disrupting mtDNA damage. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism of apoptosis that is initiated when mtDNA damage triggers mitochondrial superoxide generation and ultimately the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition. This novel mechanism may play an important pathological role.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, with increasing prevalence and no disease-modifying treatment available yet. A remarkable amount of data supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress is an early and important pathogenic operator in AD. However, all clinical studies conducted to date did not prove a clear beneficial effect of antioxidant treatment in AD patients. In the current work, we review the current knowledge about oxidative stress in AD pathogeny and we suggest future paths that are worth to be explored in animal models and clinical studies, in order to get a better approach of oxidative imbalance in this inexorable neurodegenerative disease.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2014; 2014:427318. DOI:10.1155/2014/427318 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac cell apoptosis is the initiating factor of cardiac complications especially diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondria are susceptible to the damaging effects of elevated glucose condition. Calcium overload and oxidative insult are the two mutually non-exclusive phenomena suggested to cause cardiac dysfunction. Here, we examined the effect of high-glucose induced calcium overload in calpain-1 mediated cardiac apoptosis in an in vitro setting. H9c2, rat ventricular myoblast cell line was treated with elevated glucose condition and the cellular consequences were studied. Intracellular calcium trafficking, ROS generation, calpain-1 activation and caspase-12 and caspase-9 pathway were studied using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. High-glucose treatment resulted in increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) which was mobilized to the mitochondria. Concomitant intra-mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]m) increase resulted in enhanced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. These events led to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Cardiomyocyte death exhibited several classical markers of apoptosis, including activation of caspases, appearance of annexin V on the outer plasma membrane, increased population of cells with sub-G0/G1 DNA content and nuclear condensation. Key findings include elucidation of cell signaling mechanism of high-glucose induced calcium-dependent cysteine protease calpain-1 activation, which triggers non-conventional caspases as alternate mode of cell death. This information increases the understanding of cardiac cell death under hyperglycemic condition and can possibly be extended for designing new therapeutic strategies for diabetic cardiomyopathy. The novel findings of the study reveal that high glucose induces apoptosis by both mitochondria-dependent and independent pathways via concomitant rise in intracellular calcium.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2012; 1820(7):907-20. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.02.010 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor