"Therefore, we hypothesise that Ala946 is not causal itself but a marker for common haplotypes carrying functional variants that reduce IFIH1 transcription compared to other haplotypes with normal or higher expression. Two groups have previously attempted to correlate genotype at rs1990760/Thr946Ala with expression of IFIH1 with only one identifying an association , . These studies used quantitative PCR (qPCR) which has limited sensitivity for detecting small differences in transcript levels between different individuals with defined IFIH1 genotypes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IFIH1 (interferon induced with helicase C domain 1), also known as MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5), is one of a family of intracellular proteins known to recognise viral RNA and mediate the innate immune response. IFIH1 is causal in type 1 diabetes based on the protective associations of four rare variants, where the derived alleles are predicted to reduce gene expression or function. Originally, however, T1D protection was mapped to the common IFIH1 nsSNP, rs1990760 or Thr946Ala. This common amino acid substitution does not cause a loss of function and evidence suggests the protective allele, Ala(946), may mark a haplotype with reduced expression of IFIH1 in line with the protection conferred by the four rare loss of function alleles. We have performed allele specific expression analysis that supports this hypothesis: the T1D protective haplotype correlates with reduced IFIH1 transcription in interferon-β stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (overall p = 0.012). In addition, we have used multiflow cytometry analysis and quantitative PCR assays to prove reduced expression of IFIH1 in individuals heterozygous for three of the T1D-associated rare alleles: a premature stop codon, rs35744605 (Glu627X) and predicted splice variants, rs35337543 (IVS8+1) and rs35732034 (IVS14+1). We also show that the nsSNP, Ile923V, does not alter pre-mRNA levels of IFIH1. These results confirm and extend the new autoimmune disease pathway of reduced IFIH1 expression and protein function protecting from T1D.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012646 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Ala946 is the fully conserved amino acid, suggesting that this is the functional allele. The association between IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism and T1D was not only confirmed by other authors [10-12] but also reported in other autoimmune diseases [3,13,14]. Studies that reported associations between viral infection and susceptibility to development T1D as well as autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) [15-17], reinforce the IFIH1 gene as a good functional candidate for these autoimmune disorders. On the basis on this finding we investigated the role of IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism in ATD including GD, HT and Addison's disease (all Germans) and enlarge our analysis in the transmission of this polymorphism in families with offspring affected with GD and HT. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three genes have been confirmed as major joint susceptibility genes for endocrine autoimmune disease:human leukocyte antigen class II, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22. Recent studies showed that a genetic variation within the interferon induced helicase domain 1 (IFIH1) locus (rs1990760 polymorphism) is an additional risk factor in type 1 diabetes and Graves' disease (GD).
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the rs1990760 polymorphism within the IFIH1 gene in German patients with GD (n = 258), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n = 106), Addison's disease (AD, n = 195) and healthy controls (HC, n = 227) as well as in 55 GD families (165 individuals, German) and 100 HT families (300 individuals, Italian). Furthermore, the interaction between rs1990760 polymorphism with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk haplotype DQ2(DQA*0501-DQB*0201), the risk haplotypes DQ2/DQ8 (DQA*0301-DQB*0302) and the status of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) in patients and families were analysed.
No significant differences were found between the allele and genotype frequencies for rs1990760 IFIH1 polymorphism in patients with GD, HT, AD and HC. Also no differences were observed when stratifying the IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism for gender, presence or absence of thyroid antibodies (GD:TRAb and HT:TPOAb/TgAb) and HLA risk haplotypes (DQ2:for GD and HT, DQ2/DQ8:for AD). Furthermore the transmission analysis in GD and HT families revealed no differences in alleles transmission for rs1990760 IFIH1 from parents with or without HLA risk haplotype DQ2 to the affected offspring. In contrast, by dividing the HT parents according to the presence or absence of thyroid Ab titers, mothers and fathers both positive for TPOAb/TgAb overtransmitted the allele A of IFIH1 rs1990760 to their HT affected offspring (61.8% vs 38.2%;p = 0.05;corrected p [pc] = 0.1). However, these associations did not remain statistically significant after correction of the p-values.
In conclusion, our data suggest, no contribution from IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism to the pathogenesis of either Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Addison's disease in our study populations. However, in order to exclude a possible influence of the studied polymorphism in specified subgroups within patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, further investigations in larger populations are needed.
BMC Medical Genetics 12/2009; 10(1):126. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-10-126 · 2.08 Impact Factor
"Although studies linking specific genes with SjS remain limited, several genes and/or gene products have been reported as being associated with either SjS or diseases linked to SjS, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis. These include such genes as ApoE , Clu , Ctla4 , Fas/Fasl , Gstm1 , Il7r , Ifih1 , IgG , Irf5 , Lyzs , Mbl , Ptpn22 , Sh2b3 , Stat4 , Tap2 , Tgfβ1, Tnfa , and Tnfaip3 . At the same time, a growing list of genes and/or gene products has been reported as being associated with SjS-like disease in mouse models [10,42]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported the development of the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mouse that carries two genetic intervals derived from the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse capable of conferring Sjögren's syndrome (SjS)-like disease in SjS-non-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. In an attempt to define the molecular bases underlying the onset of stomatitis sicca (xerostomia) in this C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mouse model, we have carried out a study using genomic microarray technology.
By means of oligonucleotide microarrays, gene expression profiles of salivary glands at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age were generated for C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 male mice. Using Linear Models for Microarray Analysis and B-statistics software, 480 genes were identified as being differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and Q < 0.0001) during the development of SjS-like disease in the salivary glands.
The 480 genes could be arranged into four clusters, with each cluster defining a unique pattern of temporal expression, while the individual genes within each cluster could be grouped according to related biological functions. By means of pair-wise analysis, temporal changes in transcript expressions provided profiles indicating that many additional genes are differentially expressed at specific time points during the development of disease. Multiple genes reportedly showing an association with autoimmunity and/or SjS, in either humans or mouse models, were found to exhibit differential expressions, both quantitatively and temporally. Selecting various families of genes associated with specific functions (for example, antibody production, complement, and chemokines), we noted that only a limited number of family members showed differential expressions and these correlated with specific phases of disease.
Taking advantage of known functions of these genes, investigators can construct interactive gene pathways, leading to modeling of possible underlying events inducing salivary gland dysfunction. Thus, these different approaches to analyzing microarray data permit the identification of multiple sets of genes of interest whose expressions and expression profiles may correlate with molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways, and/or immunological processes involved in the development and onset of SjS.
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