Response to Comment on "A 3-Hydroxypropionate/4-Hydroxybutyrate Autotrophic Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Pathway in Archaea"
ABSTRACT The assimilation of carbon dioxide (CO2) into organic material is quantitatively the most important biosynthetic process. We discovered that an autotrophic member of the archaeal order Sulfolobales, Metallosphaera sedula, fixed CO2 with acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)/propionyl-CoA carboxylase as the key carboxylating enzyme. In this system, one acetyl-CoA and two bicarbonate molecules were reductively converted via 3-hydroxypropionate to succinyl-CoA. This intermediate was reduced to 4-hydroxybutyrate and converted into two acetyl-CoA molecules via 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase. The key genes of this pathway were found not only in Metallosphaera but also in Sulfolobus, Archaeoglobus, and Cenarchaeum species. Moreover, the Global Ocean Sampling database contains half as many 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase sequences as compared with those found for another key photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. This indicates the importance of this enzyme in global carbon cycling.
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ABSTRACT: Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are an important component of the planktonic community in aquatic habitats, linking nitrogen and carbon cycles through nitrification and carbon fixation. Therefore, measurements of these processes in culture-based experiments can provide insights into their contributions to energy conservation and biomass production by specific AOA. In this study, by enriching AOA from a brackish, oxygen-depleted water-column in the Landsort Deep, central Baltic Sea, we were able to investigate ammonium oxidation, chemoautotrophy, and growth in seawater batch experiments. The highly enriched culture consisted of up to 97% archaea, with maximal archaeal numbers of 2.9 × 107 cells mL−1. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene sequences revealed an affiliation with assemblages from low-salinity and freshwater habitats, with Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia as the closest relative. Growth correlated significantly with nitrite production, ammonium consumption, and CO2 fixation, which occurred at a ratio of 10 atoms N oxidized per 1 atom C fixed. According to the carbon balance, AOA biomass production can be entirely explained by chemoautotrophy. The cellular carbon content was estimated to be 9 fg C per cell. Single-cell-based 13C and 15N labeling experiments and analysis by nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry provided further evidence that cellular carbon was derived from bicarbonate and that ammonium was taken up by the cells. Our study therefore revealed that growth by an AOA belonging to the genus Nitrosoarchaeum can be sustained largely by chemoautotrophy.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2015; 5(786). DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00786 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas.06/2014; 3(3). DOI:10.1002/mbo3.169
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ABSTRACT: Marine microbial communities provide much of the energy upon which all higher trophic levels depend, particularly in open-ocean and oligotrophic systems, and play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling. How and why species are distributed in the global oceans, and whether net ecosystem function can be accurately predicted from community composition are fundamental questions for marine scientists. Many of the most abundant clades of marine bacteria, including the Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, SAR11, SAR86 and Roseobacter, have a very broad, if not a cosmopolitan distribution. However this is not reflected in an underlying genetic identity. Rather, widespread distribution in these organisms is achieved by the existence of closely related but discrete ecotypes that display niche adaptations. Closely related ecotypes display specific nutritional or energy generating mechanisms and are adapted to different physical parameters including temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, biotic phenomena such as selective grazing and viral loss contribute to the success or failure of ecotypes allowing some to compete effectively in particular marine provinces but not in others. An additional layer of complexity is added by ocean currents and hydrodynamic specificity of water body masses that bound microbial dispersal and immigration. These vary in space and time with respect to intensity and direction, making the definition of large biogeographic provinces problematic. A deterministic theory aimed at understanding how all these factors shape microbial life in the oceans can only proceed through analysis of microbial traits, rather than pure phylogenetic assessments. Trait based approaches seek mechanistic explanations for the observed temporal and spatial patterns. This review will present successful recent advances in phylogenetic and trait based biogeographic analyses in some of the most abundant marine taxa.Marine Genomics 06/2014; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.margen.2014.03.002 · 1.97 Impact Factor