Serine-7 of the RNA polymerase II CTD is specifically required for snRNA gene expression.
ABSTRACT RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes genes that encode proteins and noncoding small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of mammalian RNA Pol II, comprising tandem repeats of the heptapeptide consensus Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7, is required for expression of both gene types. We show that mutation of serine-7 to alanine causes a specific defect in snRNA gene expression. We also present evidence that phosphorylation of serine-7 facilitates interaction with the snRNA gene-specific Integrator complex. These findings assign a biological function to this amino acid and highlight a gene type-specific requirement for a residue within the CTD heptapeptide, supporting the existence of a CTD code.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dawn O'Reilly, May 22, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The Cajal body (CB) is a domain of concentrated components found within the nucleus of cells in an array of species that is functionally important for the biogenesis of telomerase and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The CB is a dynamic structure whose number and size change during the cell cycle and is associated with other nuclear structures and gene loci. Coilin, also known as the marker protein for the CB, is a phosphoprotein widely accepted for its role in maintaining CB integrity. Recent studies have been done to further elucidate functional activities of coilin apart from its structural role in the CB in an attempt to explore the rationale for coilin expression in cells that have few CBs or lack them altogether. Here we show that the RNA association profile of coilin changes in mitosis with respect to that during interphase. We provide evidence of transcriptional and/or processing dysregulation of several CB-related RNA transcripts as a result of ectopic expression of both wild-type and phosphomutant coilin proteins. We also show apparent changes in transcription and/or processing of these transcripts upon coilin knockdown in both transformed and primary cell lines. Additionally, we provide evidence of specific coilin RNase activity regulation, on both U2 and hTR transcripts, by phosphorylation of a single residue, serine 489. Collectively, these results point to additional functions for coilin that are regulated by phosphorylation.04/2013; 2(4):407-15. DOI:10.1242/bio.20133863
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ABSTRACT: Human U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA, required for splicing of pre-mRNA, is encoded by genes on chromosome 1 (1p36). Imperfect copies of these U1 snRNA genes, also located on chromosome 1 (1q12-21), were thought to be pseudogenes. However, many of these 'variant' (v)U1 snRNA genes produce fully-processed transcripts. Using antisense oligonucleotides to block the activity of a specific vU1 snRNA in HeLa cells, we have identified global transcriptome changes following interrogation of the Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 array. Our results indicate that this vU1 snRNA regulates expression of a subset of target genes at the level of pre-mRNA processing. This is the first indication that variant U1 snRNAs have a biological function in vivo. Furthermore, some vU1 snRNAs are packaged into unique ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and many vU1 snRNA genes are differentially expressed in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and HeLa cells, suggesting developmental control of RNA processing through expression of different sets of vU1 snRNPs.Genome Research 10/2012; DOI:10.1101/gr.142968.112 · 13.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ssu72, an RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) phospho-Ser5 (pSer5) phosphatase, was recently reported to have pSer7 phosphatase activity as well. We report here the crystal structure of a ternary complex of the N-terminal domain of human symplekin, human Ssu72, and a 10-mer pSer7 CTD peptide. Surprisingly, the peptide is bound in the Ssu72 active site with its backbone running in the opposite direction compared with a pSer5 peptide. The pSer7 phosphatase activity of Ssu72 is ∼4000-fold lower than its pSer5 phosphatase activity toward a peptide substrate, consistent with the structural observations.Genes & development 10/2012; 26(20):2265-70. DOI:10.1101/gad.198853.112 · 12.64 Impact Factor