Inhibition of inducible nitric-oxide synthase protects human T cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis
ABSTRACT Sodium cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia triggers a series of biochemical alterations leading to apoptosis in many cell types, including T cells. It is known that chemical hypoxia promotes inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) gene transcription by activating its transcription factors. To determine whether iNOS and NO production are responsible for chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis, we exposed human Jurkat T cells to sodium cyanide in the presence or absence of iNOS inhibitors. We found that iNOS expression is necessary for hypoxia-induced lipid peroxidation and leukotriene B(4) generation. The inhibition of iNOS limited T-cell apoptosis by decreasing the activity of caspase-3 without affecting the expression of Fas/Apo-1/CD95 on the surface membrane of T cells. These data suggest iNOS-mediated NO produced endogenously in the T cell alters overall T-cell function and results in apoptosis. Proper control of iNOS expressed in the T cell may represent a useful approach to immunomodulation.
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ABSTRACT: Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.). Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 04/2012; 2012:983427. DOI:10.1155/2012/983427 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and depletes ATP levels in various tissues. Previous studies have shown that geldanamycin, an inducer of heat shock protein 70kDa (HSP-70) and inhibitor of iNOS, limits both processes. Reduction in NO production limits lipid peroxidation, apoptosome formation, and caspase-3 activation, thereby increasing cellular survival and reducing the sequelae of hemorrhage. The poor solubility of geldanamycin in aqueous solutions, however, limits its effectiveness as a drug. 17-DMAG is a water-soluble analog of geldanamycin that might have greater therapeutic utility. This study investigated the effectiveness of 17-DMAG at reducing hemorrhagic injury in mouse small intestine. In mice, the hemorrhage-induced iNOS increase correlated with increases in Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and NF-kB and a decrease in KLF4. As a result, increases in NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred. Moreover, hemorrhage also resulted in decreased Bcl-2 and increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, p53 protein, caspase-3 activation, and cellular ATP depletion. A shortening and widening of villi in the small intestine was also observed. Treatment with 17-DMAG significantly reduced the hemorrhage-induced increases in iNOS protein, jejunal alteration, and TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations, but 17-DMAG did not affect the hemorrhage-induced increases in p53 and IL-6 concentration. 17-DMAG treatment by itself upregulated HSP-70, Bcl-2, and p53. Since 17-DMAG is water soluble, bioactive, and not toxic, 17-DMAG may prove useful as a prophylactic drug for hemorrhage.06/2011; 1(1):21. DOI:10.1186/2045-3701-1-21
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, plays an important role in preventing hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension. Endogenous NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) from L-arginine. In mammals, three different NOSs have been identified, including neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae ) is a typical hypoxia tolerant mammal that lives at 3000∼5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NOS expression and NO production are regulated by chronic hypoxia in plateau pika. Quantitative Real-Time PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to quantify relative abundances of iNOS and eNOS transcripts and proteins in the lung tissues of plateau pikas at different altitudes (4550, 3950 and 3200 m). Plasma NO metabolites, nitrite/ nitrate (NOx-) levels were also examined by Ion chromatography to determine the correlation between NO production and altitude level. The results revealed that iNOS transcript levels were significantly lower in animals at high altitudes (decreased by 53% and 57% at altitude of 3950 m and 4550 m compared with that at 3200 m). Similar trends in iNOS protein abundances were observed (26% and 41% at 3950 m and 4550 m comparing with at 3200 m). There were no significant differences in eNOS mRNA and protein levels in the pika lungs among different altitudes. The plasma NOx- levels of the plateau pikas at high altitudes significantly decreased (1.65±0.19 μg/mL at 3200 m to 0.44±0.03 μg/mL at 3950 m and 0.24±0.01 μg/mL at 4550 m). This is the first evidence describing the effects of chronic hypoxia on NOS expression and NO levels in the plateau pika in high altitude adaptation. We conclude that iNOS expression and NO production are suppressed at high altitudes, and the lower NO concentration at high altitudes may serve crucial roles for helping the plateau pika to survive at hypoxic environment.Nitric Oxide 04/2014; 38. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.02.009 · 3.18 Impact Factor