Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: Prospective study of 6,764 middle-aged men and women

MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Medical Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 02/2008; 167(2):188-92. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm309
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the association between percentage of total daily energy intake consumed at breakfast and weight change in middle-aged men and women, the authors analyzed data from a prospective population-based cohort study from Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants were 6,764 men and women aged 40-75 years at baseline (1993-1997). Participants completed a 7-day food diary at baseline, and objective measurements of height and weight were carried out at baseline and follow-up (1998-2000). Mean baseline body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was lowest among persons in the highest quintile of percentage of daily energy consumed at breakfast (mean values were 26.0 in the highest quintile and 26.3 in the lowest quintile), despite higher daily total energy intake in this group. Although all participants gained weight, increased percentage of daily energy consumed at breakfast was associated with relatively lower weight gain (adjusted beta coefficient = -0.021, 95% confidence interval: -0.035, -0.007; p = 0.004). The association between percentage of daily energy intake consumed at breakfast and weight gain was independent of age, sex, smoking, total energy intake, macronutrient intake, social class, and physical activity. Redistribution of daily energy intake, so that more energy is consumed at breakfast and less energy is consumed later in the day, may help to reduce weight gain in middle-aged adults.

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Available from: Ailsa A Welch, May 30, 2014
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    • "Another research associated with the effects of eating on health found conclusive evidence that consuming a higher proportion of total daily calories intake at breakfast lowers weight gain (Purslow et al. 2008). That is, if one eats more during breakfast and eats lesser during his/her other meals, one is less likely to gain more weight over time. "
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    • "Overweight is a result of over-intake of energy in relation to energy expenditure and energy required for growth. However, the relationship is complex, e.g. higher percentage of total energy intake at breakfast has been inversely associated with future weight gain, even when accounting for total energy intake (Purslow et al., 2008). Different eating styles are associated with weight status (Keski-Rahkonen et al., 2007), and environmental factors are interrelated: television viewing is associated with snacking (Snoek, van Strien, Janssens, & Engels, 2006) and television advertisements with increased consumption of food (Halford, Gillespie, Brown, Pontin, & Dovey, 2004); playing electronic games and television viewing are associated with decreased time spent in physical activities (Marshall, Biddle, Gorely, Cameron, & Murdey, 2004), and breakfast skipping with infrequent exercise and other health-compromising behaviors among adolescents (Keski-Rahkonen, Kaprio, Rissanen, Virkkunen, & Rose, 2003). "
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