Human myosin Vc is a low duty ratio nonprocessive motor.

Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 05/2008; 283(16):10581-92. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M707657200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There are three distinct members of the myosin V family in vertebrates, and each isoform is involved in different membrane trafficking pathways. Both myosin Va and Vb have demonstrated that they are high duty ratio motors that are consistent with the processive nature of these motors. Here we report that the ATPase cycle mechanism of the single-headed construct of myosin Vc is quite different from those of other vertebrate myosin V isoforms. K(ATPase) of the actin-activated ATPase was 62 microm, which is much higher than that of myosin Va ( approximately 1 mum). The rate of ADP release from actomyosin Vc was 12.7 s(-1), which was 2 times greater than the entire ATPase cycle rate, 6.5 s(-1). P(i) burst size was 0.31, indicating that the equilibrium of the ATP hydrolysis step is shifted to the prehydrolysis form. Our kinetic model, based on all kinetic data we determined in this study, suggests that myosin Vc spends the majority of the ATPase cycle time in the weak actin binding state in contrast to myosin Va and Vb. Consistently, the two-headed myosin Vc construct did not show processive movement in total internal reflection fluorescence microscope analysis, demonstrating that myosin Vc is a nonprocessive motor. Our findings suggest that myosin Vc fulfills its function as a cargo transporter by different mechanisms from other myosin V isoforms.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The myosin-V family of molecular motors is known to be under sophisticated regulation, but our knowledge of the roles and regulation of myosin-Vs in cytokinesis is limited. Here, we report that the myosin-V Myo51 affects contractile ring assembly and stability during fission yeast cytokinesis, and is regulated by two novel coiled-coil proteins, Rng8 and Rng9. Both rng8Δ and rng9Δ cells display similar defects as myo51Δ in cytokinesis. Rng8 and Rng9 are required for Myo51's localizations to cytoplasmic puncta, actin cables, and the contractile ring. Myo51 puncta contain multiple Myo51 molecules and walk continuously on actin filaments in rng8(+) cells, whereas Myo51 forms speckles containing only one dimer and does not move efficiently on actin tracks in rng8Δ. Consistently, Myo51 transports artificial cargos efficiently in vivo, and this activity is regulated by Rng8. Purified Rng8 and Rng9 form stable higher-order complexes. Collectively, we propose that Rng8 and Rng9 form oligomers and cluster multiple Myo51 dimers to regulate Myo51 localization and functions.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2014; · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myosin 5c (Myo5c) is a low duty ratio, non-processive motor unable to move continuously along actin filaments though it is believed to participate in secretory vesicle trafficking in vertebrate cells. Here, we measured the ATPase kinetics of Myo5c dimers and tested the possibility that the coupling of two Myo5c molecules enables processive movement. Steady-state ATPase activity and ADP dissociation kinetics demonstrated that a dimer of Myo5c-HMM (double-headed heavy meromyosin 5c) has a 6-fold lower Km for actin filaments than Myo5c-S1 (single-headed myosin 5c subfragment-1), indicating that the two heads of Myo5c-HMM increase F-actin-binding affinity. Nanometer-precision tracking analyses showed that two Myo5c-HMM dimers linked with each other via a DNA scaffold and moved processively along actin filaments. Moreover, the distance between the Myo5c molecules on the DNA scaffold is an important factor for the processive movement. Individual Myo5c molecules in two-dimer complexes move stochastically in 30-36 nm steps. These results demonstrate that two dimers of Myo5c molecules on a DNA scaffold increased the probability of rebinding to F-actin and enabled processive steps along actin filaments, which could be used for collective cargo transport in cells.
    Scientific Reports 05/2014; 4:4907. · 5.08 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 3, 2014