Mapping aerial metal deposition in metropolitan areas from tree bark: a case study in Sheffield, England.

Centre for Analytical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RF, UK.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 3.9). 10/2008; 155(1):164-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.10.036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the use of metals accumulated on tree bark for mapping their deposition across metropolitan Sheffield by sampling 642 trees of three common species. Mean concentrations of metals were generally an order of magnitude greater than in samples from a remote uncontaminated site. We found trivially small differences among tree species with respect to metal concentrations on bark, and in subsequent statistical analyses did not discriminate between them. We mapped the concentrations of As, Cd and Ni by lognormal universal kriging using parameters estimated by residual maximum likelihood (REML). The concentrations of Ni and Cd were greatest close to a large steel works, their probable source, and declined markedly within 500 m of it and from there more gradually over several kilometres. Arsenic was much more evenly distributed, probably as a result of locally mined coal burned in domestic fires for many years. Tree bark seems to integrate airborne pollution over time, and our findings show that sampling and analysing it are cost-effective means of mapping and identifying sources.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Free trace metals are one of the most relevant environmental problems of today; consequently, it is becoming important to evaluate their spatial distribution and accumulation rates in the natural environment. For this analysis, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was chosen as suitable for indication of environmental stress because of its simple wood structure and of well distinct tree-rings for evaluation of temporal trace metals concentration changes. For the primary study, we chose the most evenly forested territory – the south-eastern part of Lithuania. The study results revealed that the background Zn concentration in Scots pines is 7.2 mg·kg and that of Cu amounts to 2.5 mg·kg The anomaly concentration of both trace metals in Scots pine defined to be higher than 21.3 for Zn and 9.0 mg·kg of d.w. for Cu. The Cu and Zn concentration in Scots pine stem distributed gradually with slightly increased values towards the bark. However, a lower concentration rate was noticed in the wood formed in 1930–1950, which agrees with the most extreme climatic period in Lithuania.
    Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 12/2011; 19(4):278-286. DOI:10.3846/16486897.2011.634418 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multielemental profiles of soil, dust, linden tree bark (Tilia sp.) and wood-rotting fungi (Schizophyllum commune) collected in central public park of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, at two distances from the nearby high-frequency road, were assessed as potential air pollution indicators. The samples were microwave digested and 10 elements were measured by graphite furnace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and cold vapor (Hg) atomic absorption spectrometry. This is the first report on the heavy element contents in the selected type of samples collected in the Banja Luka City and also in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results showed significant decrease of element contents, particularly of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Zn and Co, in the samples with increasing distance from the road edge. According to the Dutch soil quality standard, the Cd, Co, and Hg concentrations of the examined soils were higher than the target values for unpolluted soil, but they were not above the intervention values for which a serious case of soil contamination exists. Compared to the roadside soil, roadside dust had significantly higher contents of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg, but majority of them were in the range of concentrations previously reported in literature. The exceptions were Co and Hg, being up to ∼2 times higher than the maximum of the previously reported levels, which might be considered as peculiarity for the Banja Luka dust samples. Dust significantly contributed to the elemental profile of tree bark. The Hg concentration in the roadside tree bark sample was far above the phytotoxic limit, and the problem of “dying trees” in the Banja Luka park previously related to the presence of white-rot fungi could be attributed to the excessive contents of this biotoxic element. Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of enrichment factors (EFs) provided a framework for differentiation of dominant sources of elements in the analyzed samples.
    Ecological Indicators 02/2012; 13(1):168–177. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.05.023 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measurements of trace elements in tree bark were used to investigate pollution caused by emissions from two cement production plants in the vicinity of the cities of Laranjeiras and Nossa Senhora do Socorro (Sergipe State, northeast Brazil). Samples of tree bark were collected across a wide area within the municipalities of Machado, Estivas, and Estivas II, as well as close to the two cement plants. Analyses were carried out by EDXRF to determine the concentrations of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, S, Sr, and Zn in the tree barks. The resulting data were used to generate distribution maps of element concentrations, which enabled identification of pollution hotspots. The results indicated that emissions from the cement industry affect the region as a whole, as demonstrated by accumulation of trace elements in the tree barks.
    Microchemical Journal 07/2012; 103:15–20. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2011.12.008 · 3.58 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014