Article

# Trunk density profile estimates from dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Texas A&M - Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429, USA.

Journal of Biomechanics (Impact Factor: 2.72). 02/2008; 41(4):861-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.10.022 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM) and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx). This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of < 1.5%) relatively to results of the generic DXA scanner software. The BSIPs of elite male and female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males (n = 28), were computed using this DXA method and 5 other common indirect estimation methods. A 3D surface scan of each subject enabled mapping of key anthropometric variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank). Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p < 0.05). Elite male swimmers recorded the greatest inertial parameters of the trunk and upper arms (p < 0.05). Using the DXA method as the criterion, the five indirect methods produced errors greater than 10% for at least one BSIP in all three populations. Therefore, caution is required when computing BSIPs for elite swimmers via these indirect methods, DXA accurately estimated BSIPs in the frontal plane. Key PointsElite swimmers have significantly different body segment inertial parameters than young adult Caucasian males.The errors computed from indirect BSIP estimation methods are large regardless whether applied to elite swimmers or young adult Caucasian males.No indirect estimation method consistently performed best.Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2013; 12(4):761-75. · 0.89 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Classical models to estimate the head and trunk (HT) moments of inertia (I) are limited to populations from which the anthropometric measures were obtained. The purposes of this study were to determine if the angular momentum technique can be used to estimate subject-specific HT's I values and test its validity and sensitivity. Twenty-three adults who participated in this study were divided into three morphological groups according to their body mass index (BMI). Using the proposed technique, the HT's I values were estimated for the whole sample and compared to three well-known methods to test its validity. The sensitivity of the proposed method was verified while applied to individuals with different BMI (i.e., lean, normal, and obese). The angular momentum technique gave I values within the range of those of the three methods for the entire sample. Statistical differences were identified between the lean and obese groups in relative radii of gyration for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes ( P<0.05). Since the proposed technique makes no assumption on the mass distribution and segments' geometry, it appeared to be more sensitive to body morphology changes in estimating the HT's I values in lean and obese subjects compared to the classical methods.IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 12/2010; 58(5):1278-85. · 2.15 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Segment estimates of mass, center of mass and moment of inertia are required input parameters to analyze the forces and moments acting across the joints. The objectives of this study were to propose a new geometric model for limb segments, to evaluate it against criterion values obtained from DXA, and to compare its performance to five other popular models. Twenty five female and 24 male college students participated in the study. For the criterion measures, the participants underwent a whole body DXA scan, and estimates for segment mass, center of mass location, and moment of inertia (frontal plane) were directly computed from the DXA mass units. For the new model, the volume was determined from two standing frontal and sagittal photographs. Each segment was modelled as a stack of slices, the sections of which were ellipses if they are not adjoining another segment and sectioned ellipses if they were adjoining another segment (e.g. upper arm and trunk). Length of axes of the ellipses was obtained from the photographs. In addition, a sex-specific, non-uniform density function was developed for each segment. A series of anthropometric measurements were also taken by directly following the definitions provided of the different body segment models tested, and the same parameters determined for each model. Comparison of models showed that estimates from the new model were consistently closer to the DXA criterion than those from the other models, with an error of less than 5% for mass and moment of inertia and less than about 6% for center of mass location.Journal of biomechanics 06/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor

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