Clinical and pathologic prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. A retrospective review of the records of patients of granulosa tumors who were treated at our institute over a period of 10 years (1995-2005) was done. Clinical, pathologic, and follow-up data were collected. A total of 34 patients who were treated during this period were subjected to analysis. Cox univariate analysis and Wilcoxon's test for multivariate analysis were used as part of the SPSS software for examining the data. It was found that optimal cytoreduction (P = 0.02), presence of nuclear atypia (P < 0.001), and increased mitoses (P = 0.03) were the three factors that impacted significantly on survival. Age, stage of the tumor, parity, and size of the tumor had no significant effect on survival. Patients who received chemotherapy had a better median disease-free survival than those who did not (60 vs 48 months), but this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08). Optimal cytoreduction, nuclear atypia, and increased mitoses are the statistically significant prognostic factors and may be used for selecting patients for adjuvant therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Models to predict the probability of recurrence free survival exist for various types of malignancies, but a model for recurrence free survival in individuals with an adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is lacking. We aimed to develop and internally validate such a prognostic model. Methods We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with a GCT. Demographic, clinical and pathological information were considered as potential predictors. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Using backward stepwise selection we identified the combination of predictors that best predicted recurrence free survival. Discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration were used to assess model performance. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques to correct for overfitting. To increase clinical applicability of the model we developed a nomogram to allow individual prediction of recurrence free survival. Results We identified 127 patients with a GCT (median follow-up time was 131 months (IQR 70-215)). Recurrence of GCT occurred in 81 out of 127 patients (64%). The following four variables jointly best predicted recurrence free survival; clinical stage, Body Mass Index (BMI), tumor diameter and mitotic index. The model had a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80) and showed accurate calibration. Conclusions Recurrence free survival in patients with an adult GCT of the ovary can be accurately predicted by combination of BMI, clinical stage, tumor diameter and mitotic index. The introduced nomogram could facilitate in counselling patients and may help to guide patients and caregivers in joint decisions on post-treatment surveillance.Gynecologic Oncology. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Granulosa cell tumors constitute less than 5 % of all ovarian tumors. Unlike epithelial ovarian tumors, they occur in a younger age group, are usually detected in an early stage and often have features of hyperestrogenism. The presenting symptoms are usually nonspecific with abdominal pain or distension. They follow an indolent course and are characterized by a long natural history. Mutation of FOXL2 (402C->G) seen in 97 % of adult GCT may be pathognomonic for adult GCT. Only stage of the disease has been consistently shown in various studies to affect survival of patients with GCT. The initial management of patients, for whom fertility is not an issue, is total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and removal of all gross disease. Nodal dissection is not a significant factor for survival and is not recommended in surgical staging of GCT. Fertility preserving surgery with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is feasible in young patients with stage Ia GCT. Patients with early stage disease (stage I and II) have a very good prognosis with 5 year DFS and OS of 89 % and 99 % respectively and these groups of patients usually don’t require any postoperative treatment. Patients with stage Ic disease associated with poor prognostic factors like large tumor size or high mitotic index and stage II, have a higher chance of relapse, and may benefit with postoperative treatment but role of chemotherapy is still debatable. In advanced stage disease (stage III and IV) the 5 year DFS and OS disease was 72 % and 80 % respectively hence the option of postoperative treatment with 6 cycles of BEP should be considered in this group. Recently paclitaxel is being investigated as an effective tool in GCT. The efficacy of radiation in GCT is not well defined but in optimally debulked cases postoperative radiation is a viable option. Due to high chance of recurrence even years after apparent clinical cure of the primary tumor, lifelong follow up with clinical examination and tumor markers like inhibin B is recommended. About 25 % GCT develop recurrence and the median time to recur is usually 4–5 years. Most recurrences are intraperitoneal and usually a complete debulking of the disease is feasible even in the recurrent setting. Postoperative chemotherapy (platinum based) is usually given after surgery more so in cases with widespread disease or after suboptimal cytoreduction. Recurrent chemoresistant, progressive non-responding GCT or patients with high surgical risk are ideal candidates for targeted therapy.Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology. 03/2013; 4(1).
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ABSTRACT: Patients with irresectable granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) often receive chemotherapy. The effectiveness of this approach, however, is uncertain. The aim of our study was to assess the response rate to chemotherapy for residual and recurrent inoperable GCT. All consecutive chemotherapy-naive patients in 3 referral hospitals who were treated with chemotherapy for residual or recurrent GCT between 1968 and 2011 were included. Main outcome was the response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor criteria. A literature search in MEDLINE through PubMed was performed, from inception to August 19, 2013. Twenty-seven patients with a GCT who received chemotherapy were identified. Eighteen patients were not evaluable because they had either no measurable disease, or no imaging was performed before and after chemotherapy. One of the 9 evaluable patients (11%) had a complete response, and 1 patient (11%) had a partial response, resulting in a response rate of 22% (95% confidence interval, 0%-49%). Seven patients (78%) had stable disease (range, 2-50 months), and none had progressive disease. Fifteen studies that assessed response rates to chemotherapy on measurable disease in a total of 224 patients showed a response rate of 50% (95% confidence interval, 44%-57%). Strict criteria of response, however, were not uniformly applied in the majority of these published series. In the present study, we present only a moderate beneficial effect of chemotherapy in patients with irresectable GCT with measurable disease. Comparison with previous studies is hampered by a lack of standardized response evaluation in the majority of studies. Given the toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy, administering this treatment should be a well-considered decision.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor