The objective of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. A retrospective review of the records of patients of granulosa tumors who were treated at our institute over a period of 10 years (1995-2005) was done. Clinical, pathologic, and follow-up data were collected. A total of 34 patients who were treated during this period were subjected to analysis. Cox univariate analysis and Wilcoxon's test for multivariate analysis were used as part of the SPSS software for examining the data. It was found that optimal cytoreduction (P = 0.02), presence of nuclear atypia (P < 0.001), and increased mitoses (P = 0.03) were the three factors that impacted significantly on survival. Age, stage of the tumor, parity, and size of the tumor had no significant effect on survival. Patients who received chemotherapy had a better median disease-free survival than those who did not (60 vs 48 months), but this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08). Optimal cytoreduction, nuclear atypia, and increased mitoses are the statistically significant prognostic factors and may be used for selecting patients for adjuvant therapy.
"Of other factors, such as cytologic atypia, information was not available from our data. Residual disease was a potential prognostic variable that was described in various other reports     . Although residual disease was significantly associated with recurrent disease in univariable analysis, this was not the case in multivariable analysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Models to predict the probability of recurrence free survival exist for various types of malignancies, but a model for recurrence free survival in individuals with an adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is lacking. We aimed to develop and internally validate such a prognostic model.
We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with a GCT. Demographic, clinical and pathological information were considered as potential predictors. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Using backward stepwise selection we identified the combination of predictors that best predicted recurrence free survival. Discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration were used to assess model performance. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques to correct for overfitting. To increase clinical applicability of the model we developed a nomogram to allow individual prediction of recurrence free survival.
We identified 127 patients with a GCT (median follow-up time was 131 months (IQR 70-215)). Recurrence of GCT occurred in 81 out of 127 patients (64%). The following four variables jointly best predicted recurrence free survival; clinical stage, Body Mass Index (BMI), tumor diameter and mitotic index. The model had a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80) and showed accurate calibration.
Recurrence free survival in patients with an adult GCT of the ovary can be accurately predicted by combination of BMI, clinical stage, tumor diameter and mitotic index. The introduced nomogram could facilitate in counselling patients and may help to guide patients and caregivers in joint decisions on post-treatment surveillance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulosa-cell-tumors of the ovary (GCT) constitute a rare group of neoplasms with malignant potential. Due to the rarity of the disease intraoperative tumor-dissemination-patterns are not well defined and are mostly based on retrospective data. Aim of the present study was to describe surgical and clinical outcome and dissemination pathways in the primary and recurrent situation of the disease.
All primary and relapsed GCT-patients, operated between 01/2001 and 02/2010 in our institution were evaluated using a systematic intraoperative documentation-tool (IMO). Surgical outcome, intraoperative tumor-dissemination-pattern and pathological and findings were separately analyzed for the primary and recurrent situation.
Overall, 45 patients were analyzed; including eighteen patients with primary and 27 patients with recurrent GCT. Tumor-dissemination-patterns differed significantly between primary and recurrent patients, by the latter having significantly higher rates of diffuse peritoneal involvement (15.8% vs. 52%; p=0.027) and of extraovarian tumor involvement of the middle (15.8% vs. 48.1%; p=0.05) and upper abdomen (0 vs. 33.3%; p=0.006). While all primary patients could be operated tumor-free, this was the case for 85.2% of the relapsed patients (p=0.13). A multivisceral operative approach with extensive peritonectomy, intestinal or diaphragmatic resection, splenectomy and partial hepatectomy/panceratectomy had to be performed only in recurrent GCT (55.6%).
Tumor-dissemination-pathways followed in primary and recurrent GCT differ significantly by higher rates of multivisceral tumor involvement in the recurrent situation of the disease. While at primary presentation extrapelvic involvement with peritoneal carcinosis appears only rare, surgical cytoreduction during relapse is more challenging involving a multivisceral approach.
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