Article

PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing.

The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Molecular Cell (Impact Factor: 14.46). 01/2008; 28(5):823-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2007.11.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Tandem PHD and bromodomains are often found in chromatin-associated proteins and have been shown to cooperate in gene silencing. Each domain can bind specifically modified histones: the mechanisms of cooperation between these domains are unknown. We show that the PHD domain of the KAP1 corepressor functions as an intramolecular E3 ligase for sumoylation of the adjacent bromodomain. The RING finger-like structure of the PHD domain is required for both Ubc9 binding and sumoylation and directs modification to specific lysine residues in the bromodomain. Sumoylation is required for KAP1-mediated gene silencing and functions by directly recruiting the SETDB1 histone methyltransferase and the CHD3/Mi2 component of the NuRD complex via SUMO-interacting motifs. Sumoylated KAP1 stimulates the histone methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the cooperation of PHD and bromodomains in gene regulation and describe a function of the PHD domain as an intramolecular E3 SUMO ligase.

1 Follower
 · 
141 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KAP1 (TRIM28) is a transcriptional regulator in embryonic development that controls stem cell self-renewal, chromatin organization and the DNA damage response, acting as an essential co-repressor for KRAB family zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZNF). To gain insight into the function of this large gene family, we developed an antibody that recognizes the conserved zinc fingers linker region (ZnFL) in multiple KRAB-ZNF. Here we report that the expression of many KRAB-ZNF along with active SUMOlyated KAP1 is elevated widely in human breast cancers. KAP1 silencing in breast cancer cells reduced proliferation and inhibited the growth and metastasis of tumor xenografts. Conversely, KAP1 overexpression stimulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. In cells where KAP1 was silenced, we identified multiple downregulated genes linked to tumor progression and metastasis, including EREG/epiregulin, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, MMP2 and CD44, along with downregulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF proteins. KAP1-dependent stabilization of KRAB-ZNF required direct interactions with KAP1. Together, our results show that KAP1-mediated stimulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF contributes to the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Research 11/2014; 75(2). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1561 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) poses a substantial threat to ge-nome stability. Transcriptional silencing of a subset of these parasitic elements in early mouse embryonic and germ cell development is dependent upon the lysine methyltransfer-ase SETDB1, which deposits H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and the co-repressor KAP1, which binds SETDB1 when SUMOylated. Here we identified the transcription co-factor hnRNP K as a novel binding partner of the SETDB1/KAP1 complex in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and show that hnRNP K is required for ERV silencing. RNAi-mediated knockdown of hnRNP K led to depletion of H3K9me3 at ERVs, concomitant with de-repres-sion of proviral reporter constructs and specific ERV subfamilies, as well as a cohort of germline-specific genes directly targeted by SETDB1. While hnRNP K recruitment to ERVs is dependent upon KAP1, SETDB1 binding at these elements requires hnRNP K. Furthermore, an intact SUMO conjugation pathway is necessary for SETDB1 recruitment to proviral chromatin and depletion of hnRNP K resulted in reduced SUMOylation at ERVs. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel regulatory hierarchy governing SETDB1 re-cruitment and in turn, transcriptional silencing in mESCs.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2015; DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004933 · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a highly prevalent pathogen that induces life-long infections notably through the establishment of latency in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Bouts of reactivation are normally controlled by the immune system, but can be fatal in immuno-compromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients. Here, we reveal that HCMV latency in human CD34(+) HSC reflects the recruitment on the viral genome of KAP1, a master co-repressor, together with HP1 and the SETDB1 histone methyltransferase, which results in transcriptional silencing. During lytic infection, KAP1 is still associated with the viral genome, but its heterochromatin-inducing activity is suppressed by mTOR-mediated phosphorylation. Correspondingly, HCMV can be forced out of latency by KAP1 knockdown or pharmacological induction of KAP1 phosphorylation, and this process can be potentiated by activating NFkB with TNF-α. These results suggest new approaches both to curtail CMV infection and to purge the virus from organ transplants.
    eLife Sciences 01/2015; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.06068 · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
76 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014