Glucocorticoids and the osteoclast.
ABSTRACT Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis but its pathogenesis is controversial. GCs clearly suppress bone formation in vivo but the means by which they impact osteoblasts is unclear. Because bone remodeling is characterized by tethering of the activities of the two cells, the osteoclast is a potential modulator of the effect of GCs on osteoblasts. To address this issue we compared the effects of dexamethasone on wild-type (WT) osteoclasts with those derived from mice with disruption of the GC receptor in osteoclast lineage cells and found that the bone-degrading capacity of GC-treated WT cells is suppressed. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on bone resorption reflects failure of osteoclasts to organize their cytoskeleton in response to M-CSF. Dexamethasone specifically arrests M-CSF activation of RhoA, Rac, and Vav3, each of which regulate the osteoclast cytoskeleton. In all circumstances, mice lacking the GC receptor in osteoclast lineage cells are spared the impact of dexamethasone on osteoclasts and their precursors. Consistent with osteoclasts modulating the osteoblast-suppressive effect of dexamethasone, GC receptor-deficient mice are protected from the steroid's inhibition of bone formation.
- SourceAvailable from: Tara Clare Brennan-Speranza[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are highly effective in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions but their therapeutic use is limited by numerous adverse effects. Recent insights into the mechanisms of action of both endogenous and exogenous GCs on bone cells have unlocked new approaches to the development of effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of GC-induced osteoporosis. Furthermore, topical studies in rodents indicate that the osteoblast-derived peptide, osteocalcin, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced diabetes and obesity. These exciting findings mechanistically link the detrimental effects of GCs on bone and energy metabolism. In this article we review the physiology and pathophysiology of GC action on bone cells, and discuss current and emerging concepts regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse effects of GCs such as osteoporosis and diabetes.Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2014; · 8.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective This study aimed to evaluate the impact of concurrent administration of clinically relevant doses of zoledronic acid (ZA) and dexamethasone (DX) on bone healing after tooth extraction (EXO). Materials and Methods Forty-four Sprague–Dawley rats (6–8 month old) were randomized into five groups: ZA + DX = weekly injection of ZA with DX for 7 weeks; WD = ZA with DX for 3 weeks then DX alone for 4 weeks; C = control saline for 7 weeks; ZA = ZA alone for 7 weeks and DX = DX alone for 7 weeks. ZA was administered at 0.13 mg/kg/week and DX at 3.8 mg/kg/week and body weights recorded at the time of injection. All rats underwent extraction (EXO) of the mandibular and maxillary first molars at 3 weeks and were euthanized at 7 weeks. The extracted and non-extracted sides of both jaws were harvested for micro-CT analyses. Results All rats, particularly those injected with ZA, exhibited weight gain till EXO followed by decline then recovery. ZA + DX group demonstrated highest fractional bone to tissue volume (BV/TV) in the non-extracted side. ZA + DX rats exhibited also highest volume and surface of sequestra. Only sequestra volume was statistically higher in the WD group compared to C group. Conclusion Combined treatment with ZA and DX over a prolonged period inhibits bone remodeling and increased sequestra formation to a greater extent than either drug alone. Trauma caused by these sequestra cutting through the mucosa could play a key role in the development of BRONJ by potentially facilitating infection. ZA withdrawal may promote bone-remodeling reactivation following EXO.Oral Oncology 01/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract PURPOSE: In humans, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common cause of medication-induced osteoporosis. Recent clinical data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy increases the risk of vertebral fractures within a short treatment period. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating vertebral bone in a rat model of glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: 1) untreated controls, 2) Sham-operated group, and 3) ovariectomized rats treated with glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) for 3 months (3M) after recovery from bilateral ovariectomy. Osteoporotic bone status was determined by means of the gold standard dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Vertebral bodies were examined using µCT, histological analysis, mRNA expression analysis, and biomechanical compression testing. Further systemic effects were studied biochemically using serum marker analysis. RESULTS: Dexamethasone treatment showed at 3M a significantly lower bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats compared to Sham-operated control (p < 0.0001) as analyzed in vivo by DEXA. Furthermore, Z scores reached levels of -5.7 in the spine indicating sever osteoporotic bone status. Biomechanical testing of compression stability indicated a lower functional competence (p < 0.0001) in the spine of treated rats. µCT analysis showed significant reduction of bone volume density (BV/TV%; p < 0.0001), significantly enhanced trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp; p < 0.0001) with less trabecular number (Tb.N; p < 0.001) and complete loss of trabecular structures in glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomized rats. Histological analysis by osteoblast and osteoclast activities reflected a higher bone catabolism reflected by osteoclast counts by TRAP (p < 0.019) and lower bone catabolism indicated by ALP-stained area (p < 0.035).Serum analysis showed a significant increase in osteocalcin (p < 0.0001), osteopontin (p < 0.01) and insulin (p < 0.001) at 3M. Expression analysis of molecular markers in the vertebral body revealed lower expression in tenascin C in the OVX-steroid animals at 3M. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomized rats indicates according to DEXA standards a severe osteoporotic bone status in vertebral bone. Nonetheless, dysfunctional bone anabolism and enhanced bone catabolism are observed. Alterations of bone extracellular matrix proteins that correlate to inferior mechanical stability and affected microstructure were noticed and suggest further investigation. Treatment with dexamethasone was also seen to affect insulin and osteopontin levels and thus osteoblast function and maturation. This described animal model presents a recapitulation of clinically obtained data from early phase glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis observed in patients.07/2014;