Nutrition and bone health projects funded by the UK Food Standards Agency: Have they helped to inform public health policy?

Ashwell Associates (Europe) Ltd, Ashwell, Hertfordshire SG7 5PZ and Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2008; 99(1):198-205. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507771891
Source: PubMed


The UK Food Standards Agency convened an international group of expert scientists to review the Agency-funded projects on diet and bone health in the context of developments in the field as a whole. The potential benefits of fruit and vegetables, vitamin K, early-life nutrition and vitamin D on bone health were presented and reviewed. The workshop reached two conclusions which have public health implications. First, that promoting a diet rich in fruit and vegetable intakes might be beneficial to bone health and would be very unlikely to produce adverse consequences on bone health. The mechanism(s) for any effect of fruit and vegetables remains unknown, but the results from these projects did not support the postulated acid-base balance hypothesis. Secondly, increased dietary consumption of vitamin K may contribute to bone health, possibly through its ability to increase the gamma-carboxylation status of bone proteins such as osteocalcin. A supplementation trial comparing vitamin K supplementation with Ca and vitamin D showed an additional effect of vitamin K against baseline levels of bone mineral density, but the benefit was only seen at one bone site. The major research gap identified was the need to investigate vitamin D status to define deficiency, insufficiency and depletion across age and ethnic groups in relation to bone health.

Download full-text


Available from: Martin J Shearer,
14 Reads
  • Source
    • "The intervention involves a significant behaviour change and this increase in fruit, vegetables and herbs may be expected to have an effect on inflammatory, metabolic and bone measures of health. The strengths of the study are that it includes a combination of prescribed fruit, vegetables and herbs previously shown to affect bone resorption in the animal model but not previously trialled in humans [39], its primary emphasis on vegetables (≥ 6 servings) rather than fruit (≤ 3 servings) [49] and the inclusion of herbs [24]. This differs from previous intervention studies on bone health using the fruit and vegetable food group [8,30]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≥ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943
    BMC Public Health 01/2013; 13(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-23 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Herausgegeben von der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. (DGE), Godesberger Allee 18, 53175 Bonn, mit Förderung des Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz aufgrund eines Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages. © 2012 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. Wichtiger Hinweis: Die Erkenntnisse der Wissenschaft, speziell auch der Ernährungswissenschaft und der Medizin, unter-liegen einem laufenden Wandel durch Forschung und klinische Erfahrung. Autoren, Redaktion und Herausgeber haben die Inhalte des vorliegenden Werkes mit größter Sorgfalt erarbeitet und geprüft und die Ratschläge sorgfältig erwogen, dennoch kann eine Garantie nicht übernommen werden. Eine Haftung für Personen-, Sach-und Vermögensschäden ist ausgeschlossen.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large pore, high quality MCM-48 silica was synthesized using CTAB as the only template. The pore size could be tailored from 2.6 nm to 4.2 nm by a post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment. Nitrogen adsorption, XRD, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the samples, showing an improved long-range structural order and expanded pore size, which depends on the post-synthesis treatment conditions, such as the aging temperature during the second synthesis step.
Show more