Deletion of the archaeal histone in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 results in reduced growth and genomic transcription.
ABSTRACT HMm is the only archaeal histone in Methanosarcina mazei Göl and recombinant HMm, synthesized by expression of MM1825 in Escherichia coli, has been purified and confirmed to have the DNA binding and compaction properties characteristic of an archaeal histone. Insertion of a puromycin resistance conferring cassette (pac) into MM1825 was not lethal but resulted in mutants (M. mazei MM1825::pac) that have impaired ability to grow on methanol and trimethylamine. Loss of HMm also resulted in increased sensitivity to UV light and decreased transcript levels for approximately 25% of all M. mazei genes. For most genes, the transcript decrease was 3- to 10-fold, but transcripts of MM483 (small heat-shock protein), MM1688 (trimethylamine:corrinoid methyl transferase) and MM3195 (transcription regulator), were reduced 100-, 100- and 25-fold, respectively, in M. mazei MM1825::pac cells. Transcripts of only five adjacent genes that appear to constitute an aromatic amino acid biosynthetic operon were elevated in M. mazei MM1825::pac cells. Complementary synthesis of HMm from a plasmid transformed into M. mazei MM1825::pac restored wild-type growth and transcript levels.
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Article: Archaeal chromatin proteins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Archaea, along with Bacteria and Eukarya, are the three domains of life. In all living cells, chromatin proteins serve a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the structure and function of the genome. An array of small, abundant and basic DNA-binding proteins, considered candidates for chromatin proteins, has been isolated from the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota, the two major phyla in Archaea. While most euryarchaea encode proteins resembling eukaryotic histones, crenarchaea appear to synthesize a number of unique DNA-binding proteins likely involved in chromosomal organization. Several of these proteins (e.g., archaeal histones, Sac10b homologs, Sul7d, Cren7, CC1, etc.) have been extensively studied. However, whether they are chromatin proteins and how they function in vivo remain to be fully understood. Future investigation of archaeal chromatin proteins will lead to a better understanding of chromosomal organization and gene expression in Archaea and provide valuable information on the evolution of DNA packaging in cellular life.Science China. Life sciences 05/2012; 55(5):377-85. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report on the characterization and target analysis of the small (s)RNA(162) in the methanoarchaeon Methanosarcina mazei. Using a combination of genetic approaches, transcriptome analysis and computational predictions, the bicistronic MM2441-MM2440 mRNA encoding the transcription factor MM2441 and a protein of unknown function was identified as a potential target of this sRNA, which due to processing accumulates as three stabile 5' fragments in late exponential growth. Mobility shift assays using various mutants verified that the non-structured single-stranded linker region of sRNA(162) (SLR) base-pairs with the MM2440-MM2441 mRNA internally, thereby masking the predicted ribosome binding site of MM2441. This most likely leads to translational repression of the second cistron resulting in dis-coordinated operon expression. Analysis of mutant RNAs in vivo confirmed that the SLR of sRNA(162) is crucial for target interactions. Furthermore, our results indicate that sRNA(162)-controlled MM2441 is involved in regulating the metabolic switch between the carbon sources methanol and methylamine. Moreover, biochemical studies demonstrated that the 5' end of sRNA(162) targets the 5'-untranslated region of the cis-encoded MM2442 mRNA. Overall, this first study of archaeal sRNA/mRNA-target interactions unraveled that sRNA(162) acts as an antisense (as)RNA on cis- and trans-encoded mRNAs via two distinct domains, indicating that cis-encoded asRNAs can have larger target regulons than previously anticipated.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2012; · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Archaeal histones wrap DNA into complexes, designated archaeal nucleosomes that resemble the tetrasome core of a eukaryotic nucleosome. Therefore, all DNA interactions in vivo in Thermococcus kodakarensis, the most genetically versatile model species for archaeal research, must occur in the context of a histone-bound chromosome. Here we report the construction and properties of T. kodakarensis strains that have TK1413 or TK2289 deleted, the genes that encode HTkA and HTkB, respectively, the two archaeal histones present in this Archaeon. All attempts to generate a strain with both TK1413 and TK2289 deleted were unsuccessful arguing that histone-mediated event(s) in T. kodakarensis are essential. The HTkA and HTkB amino acid sequences are 84% identical (56/67) and 94% (63/67) similar but despite this homology, and their apparent redundancy in terms of supporting viability, the absence of HTkA and HTkB resulted in differences in growth and in quantitative and qualitative differences in genome transcription. A most surprising result was that deletion of TK1413 (ΔhtkA) resulted in a T. kodakarensis strain that is no longer amenable to transformation whereas deletion of TK2289 (ΔhtkB) had no detrimental effects on transformation. Potential roles for the archaeal histones in regulating gene expression, and for HTkA in DNA uptake and recombination are discussed.Journal of bacteriology 10/2012; · 3.94 Impact Factor