Dairy Products, Calcium Intake, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 12/2007; 16(12):2623-30. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0601
Source: PubMed


Higher intakes of calcium and dairy products, a major source of dietary calcium, are reported to increase the risk of prostate cancer, potentially due to reductions in circulating vitamin D with increasing calcium intake. We prospectively examined the association of dairy product and calcium intake with prostate cancer risk in 29,509 men, including 1,910 cases, in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We also evaluated the relation of calcium intake with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D], in a Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Trial substudy (n = 275). Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Baseline serum 1,25(OH)(2)D was determined by RIA. Greater intake of dairy products, particularly low-fat dairy products, was weakly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer [relative risk (RR), 1.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.97-1.30; P trend = 0.06 for >2.75 versus < or = 0.98 servings of total dairy/day; 1.23 (1.07-1.41) for low-fat dairy]. Greater dietary calcium intake was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.93-1.94; P trend = 0.02 for >2,000 versus <1,000 mg/day), but greater supplementary calcium intake was not associated with the risk. Associations of dairy product and dietary calcium intake were evident for nonaggressive disease (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.46; P trend = 0.01 for dairy products; 1.64, 1.04-2.57; P trend = 0.002 for dietary calcium), but not aggressive disease (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.28 for dairy products; 0.94, 0.49-1.80 for dietary calcium). Calcium intake was not associated with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and 1,25(OH)(2)D concentration. In this large prospective study in a prostate cancer screening trial, greater dietary intake of calcium and dairy products, particularly low-fat types, may be modestly associated with increased risks for nonaggressive prostate cancer, but was unrelated to aggressive disease. Furthermore, we found no relationship between calcium intake and circulating vitamin D.

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    • "Adverse to the health status of the surveyed men is also the fact of a low intake of calcium and magnesium (resulting from low consumption of dairy products, cereal products, vegetables and fruits, and legume grains), whose incorrect concentrations in the body might enhance the accumulation of fatty tissue and induce disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. However, higher dairy product and dietary calcium intakes are modestly related to increased risk for prostate cancer, particularly nonaggressive disease [Ahn et al. 2007]. Studies have shown a negative correlation between magnesium intake and a drop in its concentration inside cells with a suppressed cellular uptake of glucose [Kao et al. 1999]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The ageing in men, the most frequent pathologic lesions affecting the prostatic gland in this period are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC), the course of which may be influenced by the improper nutritional status of patients and their nutritional habits. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the nutritional status and eating habits of men diagnosed and treated for one of the above diseases. MATERIAL AND METODS: The nutritional status of 30 male patients with clinically confirmed and treated disease of the prostatic gland, including 15 men (aged 51-75 years) with BPH and 15 men (aged 51-73 years) with PC, was evaluated based on their BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR parameters. In turn, the energy and nutritive value of 90 daily food rations (DFRs) was evaluated. Finally, calculations were made for the Key's index of diet atherogenicity, resultant Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL). Results: Higher values of the BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR parameters were noted in the men with PC, they were also characterized by a higher incidence of peripheral subcutaneous obesity and visceral obesity. The DFRs of the men were characterized by a low energy value and by a low intake of available carbohydrates, dietary fi ber, K, Ca, Mg, vitamins D and C, and fl uids at a simultaneously high intake of total and animal protein, cholesterol, Na, P, Fe, Cu as well as vitamins B2 and PP. The contribution of energy derived from the basic nutrients diverged from the recommended values. In addition, the DFRs were characterized by high values of Key's index and 24-h GL. Differences in meeting the RDA for selected nutrients between the analysed groups of men were statistically significant. Conclusions: The improper nutritional status of the men may result from their incorrect nutritional habits which fail to improve their health status, and even predispose them to the development of some diet-dependent diseases. In view of that, both correction of diets of the surveyed men, as well as their health-promoting nutritional education in the aspect of prostate diseases seem necessary.
    07/2013; 12(3):319-30.
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    • "It was found that reduced levels of active vitamin D resulted in a higher PCa incidence and mortality (Garland et al. 2006). Native Japanese men, whose diet is rich in vitamin D, have a low incidence of PCa, further supporting the protective role of vitamin D. A study also showed that dietary supplementation with >600 IU of vitamin D reduced the risk of PCa (Ahn et al. 2007). However, the results of other studies were conflicting or negative (Whittemore et al. 1995, Lee et al. 1998), which suggests complexities in vitamin D signaling in PCa. "
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    ABSTRACT: Among many endocrine-related cancers, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent male malignancy, and it is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. Therefore, this review focuses on summarizing the knowledge of molecular signaling pathways in PCa because, in order to better design new preventive strategies for the fight against PCa, documentation of the knowledge on the pathogenesis of PCa at the molecular level is very important. Cancer cells are known to have alterations in multiple cellular signaling pathways; indeed, the development and the progression of PCa are known to be caused by the deregulation of several selective signaling pathways such as the androgen receptor, Akt, nuclear factor-kappaB, Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch. Therefore, strategies targeting these important pathways and their upstream and downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention of PCa progression. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the alterations in cell signaling pathways during the development and progression of PCa, and document compelling evidence showing that these are the targets of several natural agents against PCa progression and its metastases.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 09/2010; 17(3):R195-212. DOI:10.1677/ERC-10-0074 · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Metaanalyses of prospective studies indicate that high consumption of milk and dairy products (about >3 servings per day) increases the risk of prostate cancer (Gao et al, 2005; Qin et al, 2007; WCRF, 2007). A large prospective study found >2.75 servings per day of dairy products, particularly low-fat types and >2000 mg day )1 of calcium were modestly associated with increased risks only for non-aggressive prostate cancer (Ahn et al, 2007), but in most studies the associations have been primarily with metastatic or fatal prostate cancer. Although consumption of dairy products has been associated with the risk of ovarian cancer in some studies, in a large pooled analysis, the association with total dairy products and calcium intake was not significantly associated with the risk of this cancer (Genkinger et al, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Good nutrition is vital to overall health, and poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nutritional factors are implicated in many oral and systemic diseases and conditions, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, dental caries and some cancers including oral cancers. This review focuses on the evidence for the relations between key nutritional factors and health. Energy intake is related to body weight and obesity, highlighting the importance of lower-energy diets and regular physical activity for body weight maintenance and for preventing obesity. Evidence is presented for the health benefits of high quality carbohydrates, such as whole grain products, and fruits and vegetables, in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The adverse effects of sugar, sweetened beverages, and trans and saturated fats on several diseases including caries, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are described. The health benefits of unsaturated fats, antioxidants, B vitamins and vitamin D in cardiovascular disease, periodontitis, cancer, and other conditions are documented. Both benefits and harmful effects of dairy product intake on health are discussed. Based on the evidence, nutritional guidelines are provided, as well as key recommendations for preventing obesity. Dentists can play a critical role in motivating and enabling healthy food choices.
    Oral Diseases 06/2009; 15(6):369-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01571.x · 2.43 Impact Factor
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