Ethnic density of Neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants
ABSTRACT A high incidence of psychotic disorders has been reported in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. Some studies suggest that ethnic density may influence the incidence of schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether this increased incidence among immigrants depends on the ethnic density of the neighborhoods in which they live.
This was a prospective first-contact incidence study of psychotic disorders in The Hague, by ethnicity and neighborhood of residence. Over a 7-year period, individuals who made contact with a physician for a suspected psychotic disorder underwent diagnostic interviews and received DSM-IV diagnoses. A comprehensive municipal registration system provided the denominator for incidence rates. Data were sufficient to examine incidence rates in native Dutch and in first- and second-generation immigrants from Morocco, Suriname, and Turkey. The ethnic density of a neighborhood was computed for each immigrant group as the proportion of residents belonging to that group. Multilevel regression analyses predicted the incidence of psychotic disorders as a function of individual ethnicity and neighborhood ethnic density. Models were fitted for all immigrants together and for each immigrant group separately.
A total of 226 native Dutch and 240 immigrants were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder. Compared with native Dutch, the adjusted incidence rate ratio for immigrants was significantly increased in low-ethnic-density neighborhoods (2.36) but not in high-ethnic-density neighborhoods (1.25). There was a strong interaction between individual ethnicity and neighborhood ethnic density as predictors of incidence of illness. These findings were consistent across all immigrant groups.
The incidence of psychotic disorders was elevated most significantly among immigrants living in neighborhoods where their own ethnic group comprised a small proportion of the population.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To test whether spatial and social neighbourhood patterning of people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis differs from first-episode psychosis (FEP) participants or controls and to determine whether exposure to different social environments is evident before disorder onset.Method We tested differences in the spatial distributions of representative samples of FEP, UHR and control participants and fitted two-level multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for individual-level covariates, to examine group differences in neighbourhood-level characteristics.ResultsThe spatial distribution of controls (n = 41) differed from UHR (n = 48; P = 0.04) and FEP participants (n = 159; P = 0.01), whose distribution was similar (P = 0.17). Risk in FEP and UHR groups was associated with the same neighbourhood-level exposures: proportion of single-parent households [FEP adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.56 95% CI: 1.00–2.45; UHR aOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.99–2.57], ethnic diversity (FEP aOR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.58; UHR aOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.00–1.63) and multiple deprivation (FEP aOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78–1.00; UHR aOR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76–0.99).Conclusion Similar neighbourhood-level exposures predicted UHR and FEP risk, whose residential patterning was closer to each other's than controls. Adverse social environments are associated with psychosis before FEP onset.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/acps.12384 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive therapy for psychosis has developed over the past 30 years from initial case studies, treatment manuals, pilot randomized controlled studies to fully powered and methodologically rigorous efficacy and, subsequently, effectiveness trials. Reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the benefits of the interventions. Considered appraisal by government and professional organizations has now led to its inclusion in international treatment guidelines for schizophrenia. Patients consistently ask for access to psychotherapeutic interventions, and it is slowly becoming available in many European countries and other parts of the world, eg, US and the People's Republic of China. However, it remains unacceptably difficult to access for the vast majority of people with psychosis who could benefit from it. Psychosis affects people in the prime of their lives and leads to major effects on their levels of distress, well-being, and functioning, and also results in major costs to society. Providing effective interventions at an early stage has the potential to reduce the high relapse rates that occur after recovery from first episode and the ensuing morbidity and premature mortality associated with psychosis.Psychology Research and Behavior Management 02/2015; 8:63-9. DOI:10.2147/PRBM.S52267
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ABSTRACT: Increased risk of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among black Caribbean migrants and their descendants have been described since the 1960s. It remains unclear whether this risk varies over time, between rural and urban areas, or according to methodological artefact. We conducted a systematic review of the incidence of adult-onset psychotic disorders in black Caribbean groups relative to the baseline population in England, published 1950-2013. Subject to sufficient data (N ≥ 5) we used random effects meta-analyses to estimate pooled incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) of seven psychotic disorder outcomes, and meta-regression to inspect whether any variation was attributable to study-level methodological features, including case ascertainment, denominator reliability, choice of baseline population and study quality. Eighteen studies met inclusion for review. Sixteen demonstrated statistically significant elevated incidence rates in the black Caribbean group, present across all major psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Methodological quality increased over time (p = 0.01), but was not associated with estimated IR or IRR. For schizophrenia (N = 11 studies) the pooled IRR in the black Caribbean group was 4.7 (95 % CI 3.9-5.7) relative to the baseline; no evidence of publication bias was observed. We found weak evidence to suggest schizophrenia IRRs were smaller from studies in more urban settings (odds ratio 0.98; 95 % CI 0.96-1.00; p = 0.06). Higher incidence rates of psychotic disorders have been present for more than 60 years amongst black Caribbean ethnic groups in England, despite improved study methodologies over time. Aetiological explanations appear to more parsimoniously account for this excess than methodological biases.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1021-6 · 2.58 Impact Factor