Social marginalization is associated with poor health outcomes for affected people. However, in a psychosocial study of treatment for hepatitis C infection conducted in Sydney, Australia, participants living in socially disadvantaged circumstances applied adaptive approaches learned from past experiences of drug dependence, living with symptoms of chronic illness, coping with depression and childhood sexual abuse to enable them to cope with severe treatment-related side-effects. This finding has implications for the clinical management of hepatitis C treatment; the factors and processes that facilitate adaptive coping to adversity associated with social marginalization can be assessed for their clinical contribution to coping with an arduous regimen.
"Perceived stigma and discrimination impeded adaptation to the hepatitis diagnosis and was a common source of anxiety in people with chronic hepatitis C
[56,57]. Hopwood and Treloar
 found that the psychosocial stress associated with hepatitis C was less in those with a history of IDU, which may arise from greater resilience in coping with hepatitis C stemming from experiences of marginalization for people who inject drugs. A number of studies investigated specific symptoms of hepatitis C infection – with fatigue being the most common, followed by depression and other mental health issues. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Many countries have developed, or are developing, national strategies aimed at reducing the harms associated with hepatitis C infection. Making these strategies relevant to the vast majority of those affected by hepatitis C requires a more complete understanding of the short and longer term impacts of infection. We used a systematic approach to scope the literature to determine what is currently known about the health and psychosocial impacts of hepatitis C along the trajectory from exposure to ongoing chronic infection, and to identify what knowledge gaps remain.
PubMed, Current Contents and PsychINFO databases were searched for primary studies published in the ten years from 2000–2009 inclusive. Two searches were conducted for studies on hepatitis C in adult persons focusing on: outcomes over time (primarily cohort and other prospective designs); and the personal and psychosocial impacts of chronic infection. All retrieved studies were assessed for eligibility according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, data completeness and methodological coherence. Outcomes reported in 264 included studies were summarized, tabulated and synthesized.
Injecting drug use (IDU) was a major risk for transmission with seroconversion occurring relatively early in injecting careers. Persistent hepatitis C viraemia, increasing age and excessive alcohol consumption independently predicted disease progression. While interferon based therapies reduced quality of life during treatment, improvements on baseline quality of life was achieved post treatment – particularly when sustained viral response was achieved. Much of the negative social impact of chronic infection was due to the association of infection with IDU and inflated assessments of transmission risks. Perceived discrimination was commonly reported in health care settings, potentially impeding health care access. Perceptions of stigma and experiences of discrimination also had direct negative impacts on wellbeing and social functioning.
Hepatitis C and its management continue to have profound and ongoing impacts on health and social well being. Biomedical studies provided prospective information on clinical aspects of infection, while the broader social and psychological studies presented comprehensive information on seminal experiences (such as diagnosis and disclosure). Increasing the focus on combined methodological approaches could enhance understanding about the health and social impacts of hepatitis C along the life course.
BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):672. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-672 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"Psychological consequences were discussed along with a range of emotions, including grief
[6,16,18,23,29], and hostility or anger
[6,10,15,17,21-23,25,29]. Other emergent themes included difficulty at work
[5,6,10,15,18,24,26], uncertainty or a lack of knowledge about the virus
[5,6,10,14,15,17,21,22,28,32], issues related to stigma
[5,6,14,15,19,22,27,29,30], and discussion of treatment costs and benefits
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its treatment are associated with a variety of patient-reported symptoms and impacts. Some CHC symptoms and impacts may be difficult to evaluate through objective clinical testing, and more easily measured through patient self-report. This literature review identified concepts raised by CHC patients related to symptoms, impacts, and treatment effects, and evaluated integration of these concepts within patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. The goal of this work was to provide recommendations for incorporation of PRO measurement of concepts that are relevant to the CHC experience into CHC clinical trial design.
A three-tiered literature search was conducted. This included searches on concepts of importance, PRO measures used in clinical trials, and existing PRO measures. The PRO Concept Search focused on reviewing issues raised by CHC patients about CHC symptoms, disease impact, and treatment effects. The CHC Trials with PRO Endpoints Search reviewed clinical trials with PRO endpoints to assess differences between treatments over time. The PRO Measure Search reviewed existing PRO measures associated with the concepts of interest.
This multi-tiered approach identified five key concepts of interest: depression/anxiety, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, cognitive function, insomnia. Comparing these five concepts of interest to the PRO measures in published CHC clinical trials showed that, while treatment of CHC may decrease health-related quality of life in a number of mental and physical domains, the PRO measures that were utilized in published clinical trials inadequately covered the concepts of interest. Further review of 18 existing PRO measures of the concepts of interest showed only four of the 18 were validated in CHC populations.
This review identified several gaps in the literature regarding assessment of symptoms and outcomes reported as important by CHC patients. Further research is needed to ensure that CHC clinical trials evaluate concepts that are important to patients and include measures that have evidence supporting content validity, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 08/2012; 10(1):92. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-10-92 · 2.12 Impact Factor
"Qualitative research from the USA reported that older drug users had severed links with non-drug using family and friends over the years of drug taking , a premise supported by the current research. For older drug users with little or no family support, the involvement of services to support a person while undergoing treatment will play an important role . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here.
Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication.
The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is increasing in Europe and America; this group represent a vulnerable, and in Europe, a largely hidden population. Further work to evaluate the impact of this change in demography is urgently needed.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.