Old and emerging therapies in chronic hepatitis C: An update
ABSTRACT The main goal of therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is to achieve a sustained virological response currently defined as undetectable HCV-RNA in peripheral blood determined with the most sensitive polymerase chain reaction technique 24 weeks after the end of treatment. This goal is practically equivalent with eradication of HCV infection and cure of the underlying HCV-induced liver disease. The current standard in hepatitis C treatment consists in combination regimens of pegylated interferon-alpha (Peg-INF-alpha) with Ribavirin (RBV). Such treatment schemes are quite successful in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 infections achieving HCV eradication rates of 75-90%. However, they are much less effective in patients with genotypes 1 and 4 infections with eradication rates ranging between 45% and 52%. Moreover, they have several, and sometimes severe, adverse effects and contraindications, further limiting their efficacy and applicability in an appreciable number of patients with chronic HCV-induced liver disease. Therefore, the need for improvement of existing therapies and for development of new effective, safe and tolerable drugs is a matter of great clinical relevance and importance. In this article, recent improvements in the current standard of therapy with IFN-alpha and RBV in various subsets of patients with chronic hepatitis C and in the clinical development of new emerging drugs, particularly small molecules, will be reviewed and commented. The article is divided in two main parts: (i) improvements in the standard combination therapies and schemes of approved Peg-INF-alpha with RBV and expectations from new interferons, interferon inducers and alternatives to RBV; (ii) new drugs for HCV in clinical development focusing mostly on specific inhibitors of HCV and less so on other drugs including immune therapies.
- SourceAvailable from: Seiji Hitoshi
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- "Animal models of depression induced by a single ligand and its receptor would be useful for investigating these mechanisms in vivo using genetic approaches. Interferon-a (IFN-a), a proinflammatory cytokine with potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory effects, has been widely used to treat chronic viral hepatitis and several types of malignancy (Deutsch and Hadziyannis, 2008; Papatheodoridis et al., 2008; Tagliaferri et al., 2005). However, long-term IFN-a treatment frequently triggers a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms (Dieperink et al., 2000). "
ABSTRACT: New neurons generated by the neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult hippocampus play an important role in emotional regulation and respond to the action of antidepressants. Depression is a common and serious side effect of interferon-α (IFN-α), which limits its use as an antiviral and antitumor drug. However, the mechanism(s) underlying IFN-induced depression are largely unknown. Using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that mice subjected to IFN-α treatment exhibited a depression-like phenotype. IFN-α directly suppressed NSC proliferation, resulting in the reduced generation of new neurons. Brain-specific mouse knockout of the IFN-α receptor prevented IFN-α-induced depressive behavioral phenotypes and the inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IFN-α suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and induces depression via its receptor in the brain. These findings provide insight for understanding the neuropathology underlying IFN-α-induced depression and for developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of IFN-α-induced depressive effects.Stem Cell Reports 07/2014; 3(1). DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.05.015 · 5.37 Impact Factor
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- "The replication of HCV in the infected Huh-7 cells was not inhibited even after using a high dose of IFN-α. This is consistent with the fact as described in many clinical studies, IFN-monotherapy has been reported to be largely ineffective [26,27]. Here we showed that HCV infection directly modulated the IFNAR1 expression and induced defective Jak-Stat signaling in the cell culture model. "
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance to interferon alpha (IFN-α) are not fully understood. We used IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cell lines and an infectious HCV cell culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN-α resistance in cell culture. The IFN-α resistance mechanism of the replicon cells were addressed by a complementation study that utilized the full-length plasmid clones of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1), IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2), Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1, Stat2 and the ISRE-luciferase reporter plasmid. We demonstrated that the expression of the full-length IFNAR1 clone alone restored the defective Jak-Stat signaling as well as Stat1, Stat2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and antiviral response against HCV in all IFN-α resistant cell lines (R-15, R-17 and R-24) used in this study. Moreover RT-PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the cells from both R-15 and R-24 series of IFN-α resistant cells have 58 amino acid deletions in the extracellular sub domain 1 (SD1) of IFNAR1. In addition, cells from the R-17 series have 50 amino acids deletion in the sub domain 4 (SD4) of IFNAR1 protein leading to impaired activation of Tyk2 kinase. Using an infectious HCV cell culture model we show here that viral replication in the infected Huh-7 cells is relatively resistant to exogenous IFN-α. HCV infection itself induces defective Jak-Stat signaling and impairs Stat1 and Stat2 phosphorylation by down regulation of the cell surface expression of IFNAR1 through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that expression of cell surface IFNAR1 is critical for the response of HCV to exogenous IFN-α.Virology Journal 07/2011; 8(1):351. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-8-351 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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- "This combination regimen is successful in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 infection achieving HCV eradication rates of 75-90%. However, this combination is much less effective in patients with genotypes 1 and 4 infections with eradication rates ranging between 45% and 52% . PegIFN α has an extended half-life compared to Interferon α and therefore can be administered only once a week. "
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.Virology Journal 04/2011; 8(161):161. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-8-161 · 2.18 Impact Factor