The eyes of Limulus polyphemus (Xiphosura, Chelicerata) and their afferent and efferent projections.
ABSTRACT The visual system of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus (L. polyphemus) is an important preparation for studying the photoresponse, the circadian modulation of the photoresponse and visual information processing. Given its unique position in phylogeny the structure of its visual system also informs studies of the relationships among arthropods and the characteristics of eurarthropods. Much has been learned about the organization of the relatively simple L. polyphemus visual system, but much remains to be discovered. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structure of L. polyphemus eyes and the organization of their afferent and efferent projections and points to important unanswered questions.
Article: Isolation and expression of Pax6 and atonal homologues in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pax6 regulates eye development in many animals. In addition, Pax6 activates atonal transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate eyes. Here, we investigate the roles of Pax6 and atonal during embryonic development of Limulus polyphemus rudimentary lateral, medial and ventral eyes, and the initiation of lateral ommatidial eye and medial ocelli formation. Limulus eye development is of particular interest because these animals hold a unique position in arthropod phylogeny and possess multiple eye types. Furthermore, the molecular underpinnings of eye development have yet to be investigated in chelicerates. We characterized a Limulus Pax6 gene, with multiple splice products and predicted protein isoforms, and one atonal homologue. Unexpectedly, neither gene is expressed in the developing eye types examined, although both genes are present in the lateral sense organ, a structure of unknown function.Developmental Dynamics 08/2008; 237(8):2209-19. · 2.54 Impact Factor