The role of adhesion molecules, alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5 and their ligands in the tumor cell and endothelial cell adhesion.
ABSTRACT Tumor metastasis is a complex process involving the interaction between tumor cells and endothelial cells in which some adhesion molecules play an important role. It was our aim to investigate the role of the adhesion molecules, alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 and their ligands, developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) and L1, in tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, the expression and regulation of alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5 and intercellular adhesion molecule -1 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and liver cancer endothelial cells (T3A) were analyzed by real-time PCR and fluorescent-activated cell sorter. The expression and regulation of the integrin ligands, Del-1 and L1, in six tumor cell lines were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. We found the expressions of alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 were higher on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, whereas expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was lower on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. After 24 h hypoxia, the expressions of alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 were upregulated on T3A and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells; the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was increased on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, but remained unchanged on T3A. Del-1 and L1 expression levels were obviously diverse in various tumor cell lines and differentially modulated after 12 h hypoxia. The adhesion of tumor cells with Del-1 and L1 expression was higher in T3A than that in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, the tumor cell adherence could be inhibited by antibodies against alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 5, but not by an antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The adhesion of tumor cells without Del-1 and L1 expression was also higher on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, but the adhesion could not be inhibited by antibodies against alpha v beta 5, alpha v beta 5 or intercellular adhesion molecule-1, suggesting that other receptors are involved. In conclusion, alpha v beta 5, alpha v beta 5 and their ligands Del-1 and L1 play an important role in the process of tumor cells moving from the original place.
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ABSTRACT: High-grade bladder cancer (HGBC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect BC progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets. Exosomes derived from human BC cell lines and urine of patients with HGBC were assessed for their ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. Exosomes purified from the HGBC cell line TCC-SUP and nonmalignant urothelial cell line SV-HUC were submitted for mass spectrometry analysis and EGF-like repeats and discoidin I-like domains 3 (EDIL-3) was identified and selected for further analysis. Western blotting analysis was used to determine EDIL-3 levels in urinary exosomes from patients with HGBC. ShRNA gene knockdown and recombinant EDIL-3 were applied to study EDIL-3 function. We show exosomes isolated from HGBC cells and urine of patients with HGBC promote angiogenesis and migration of BC cells and endothelial cells. We silenced the expression of EDIL-3 and found that shEDIL-3 exosomes did not facilitate angiogenesis and urothelial and endothelial cell migration. Moreover, exosomes purified from the urine of patients with HGBC also contain significantly higher levels of EDIL-3 than exosomes from the urine of healthy controls. Importantly, we show that EDIL-3 activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and blockade of EGFR signaling abrogated this EDIL-3 induced bladder cell migration. Exosomes derived from the urine of BC patients contains bioactive molecules, such as EDIL-3 and identification of these components and their associated oncogenic pathways could lead to novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies.The Journal of urology 02/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian spermatozoa attain the ability to fertilize an oocyte as they negotiate the female reproductive tract. This acquisition of functional competence is preceded by an intricate cascade of biochemical and functional changes collectively known as "capacitation." Among the universal correlates of the capacitation process is a remarkable remodeling of the lipid and protein architecture of the sperm plasma membrane. While the mechanisms that underpin this dynamic reorganization remain enigmatic, emerging evidence has raised the prospect that it may be coordinated, in part, by specialized membrane microdomains, or rafts. In the present study we have demonstrated that human spermatozoa express recognized markers of membrane rafts. Further, upon depletion of membrane cholesterol through either physiological (capacitation) or pharmacological (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) intervention, these membrane rafts appear to undergo a polarized redistribution to the peri-acrosomal region of the sperm head. This finding encourages speculation that membrane rafts represent platforms for the organization of proteins involved in sperm-oocyte interactions. Support for this notion rests with the demonstration that membrane rafts isolated on the basis of their biochemical composition in the form of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), possess the ability to adhere to homologous zona pellucidae. Furthermore a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the DRMs identified a number of proteins known for their affinity for the zona pellucida in addition to other candidates putatively involved in the mediation of downstream binding and/or fusion with the oolemma. Collectively these data afford novel insights into the subcellular localization and potential functions of membrane rafts in human spermatozoa.Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2011; 226(10):2651-65. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen) or a hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39292. · 3.53 Impact Factor