Tumor metastasis is a complex process involving the interaction between tumor cells and endothelial cells in which some adhesion molecules play an important role. It was our aim to investigate the role of the adhesion molecules, alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 and their ligands, developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) and L1, in tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, the expression and regulation of alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5 and intercellular adhesion molecule -1 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and liver cancer endothelial cells (T3A) were analyzed by real-time PCR and fluorescent-activated cell sorter. The expression and regulation of the integrin ligands, Del-1 and L1, in six tumor cell lines were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. We found the expressions of alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 were higher on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, whereas expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was lower on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. After 24 h hypoxia, the expressions of alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 were upregulated on T3A and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells; the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was increased on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, but remained unchanged on T3A. Del-1 and L1 expression levels were obviously diverse in various tumor cell lines and differentially modulated after 12 h hypoxia. The adhesion of tumor cells with Del-1 and L1 expression was higher in T3A than that in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, the tumor cell adherence could be inhibited by antibodies against alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 5, but not by an antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The adhesion of tumor cells without Del-1 and L1 expression was also higher on T3A than that on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, but the adhesion could not be inhibited by antibodies against alpha v beta 5, alpha v beta 5 or intercellular adhesion molecule-1, suggesting that other receptors are involved. In conclusion, alpha v beta 5, alpha v beta 5 and their ligands Del-1 and L1 play an important role in the process of tumor cells moving from the original place.
"Invasion and metastasis are important biological characteristics of malignant tumors. Metastatic formation requires specific cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions mediated by integrins , cadherins , selectins , etc. In particular, integrin-mediated adhesion of tumor cells to ECM proteins and cell surface components is considered a crucial event in metastasis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibronectin (FN) is known to be a large multifunction glycoprotein with binding sites for many substances, including N-terminal and C-terminal heparin-binding domains. We investigated the effects of highly purified rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides originally cloned from the two heparin-binding domains on the adhesion and invasion of highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (MHCC97H) and analyzed the underlying mechanism involved.
The MHCC97H cells that adhered to FN in the presence of various concentrations of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides were stained with crystal violet and measured, and the effects of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 on the invasion of the MHCC97H cells were then detected using the Matrigel invasion assay as well as a lung-metastasis mouse model. The expression level of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphotyrosyl protein was examined by Western blot, and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) was analyzed by gelatin zymography and the electrophoretic mobility band-shift assay (EMSA), respectively.
Both of the polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 inhibited adhesion and invasion of MHCC97H cells; however, rhFNHC36 exhibited inhibition at a lower dose than rhFNHN29. These inhibitory effects were mediated by integrin αvβ3 and reversed by a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 abrogated the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), resulting in the decrease of integrin αv, β3 and β1 expression as well as the reduction of MMP-9 activity.
Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 could potentially be applicable to human liver cancer as anti-adhesive and anti-invasive agents.
BMC Cancer 10/2010; 10(1):552. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-10-552 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"The present study shows here that the human colon cancer LS-174T and HT29 cells expressed Del1. The difference in Del1 expression may be cell type-dependent, as previously reported that the Del1 expression was obviously diverse in various tumor cells [6,8]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmentally regulated endothelial cell locus-1 (Del1) is an embryonic angiogenic factor expressed in early embryonic endothelial cells, but recently has been found to be expressed in some forms of cancers including colon and breast cancers, and melanoma, and human cancer cell lines. Overexpression of Del1 accelerates tumor growth by enhancing vascular formation, implying Del1 may be a potential target for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. The study aims to investigate whether downregulation of Del1 could inhibit the growth of tumors established in nude Balb/c mice by subcutaneous implantation of human LS-174T colon cancer cells. The shRNA expression vectors targeting human Del1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were constructed. Gene transfection of Del1-shRNA downregulated expression of Del1 in LS-174T cells in vivo and in vitro, but did not alter the proliferative or survival properties of cells in vitro. Gene transfection of VEGF-shRNA downregulated expression of both VEGF and Del1 in LS-174T cells in vivo and in vitro. Both Del1-shRNA and VEGF-shRNA gene therapies exhibited anti-tumor activities and they also showed a synergistic effect in suppressing growth of colon tumors by anti-angiogenesis and anti-proliferation. Although further investigation to clarify the mechanisms explaining the role of Del1 in tumor growth, and the interaction between VEGF and Del1, is required, the results indicate that downregulation of Del1 presents a potent therapeutic strategy to combat colon cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of calcitonin (CT) and its receptor (CTR) is elevated in advanced prostate cancer, and activated CT-CTR autocrine axis plays a pivotal role in tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Recent studies suggest that CT promotes prostate cancer metastasis by reducing cell-cell adhesion through the disassembly of tight and adherens junctions and activation of beta-catenin signaling. We attempted to identify a class of molecules that enhances cell-cell adhesion of prostate cells and reverses the disruptive actions of CT on tight and adherens junctions. Screening several compounds led to the emergence of phenyl-methylene hydantoin (PMH) as a lead candidate that can augment cell-cell adhesion and abolish disruptive actions of CT on junctional complexes. PMH reduced invasiveness of PC-3M cells and abolished proinvasive actions of CT. Importantly, PMH did not display significant cytotoxicity on PC-3M cells at the tested doses. I.p. administered PMH and its S-ethyl derivative remarkably decreased orthotopic tumor growth and inhibited the formation of tumor micrometastases in distant organs of nude mice. PMH treatment also reduced the growth of spontaneous tumors in LPB-Tag mice to a significant extent without any obvious cytotoxic effects. By virtue of its ability to stabilize cell junctions, PMH could reverse the effect of CT on junctional disruption and metastasis, which strengthens the possibility of using PMH as a potential drug candidate for CT-positive androgen-independent prostate cancers.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 04/2009; 8(3):509-20. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0693 · 5.68 Impact Factor
Nan Liu, Ying Li, Hui Chen, Wei Wei, Yulin An, Guangming Zhu
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