Vitamin D 2 Is as Effective as Vitamin D 3 in Maintaining Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, M-1013, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 04/2008; 93(3):677-81. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2007-2308
Source: PubMed


Two reports suggested that vitamin D2 is less effective than vitamin D3 in maintaining vitamin D status.
Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D2 was less effective than vitamin D3 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels or increased the catabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study of healthy adults ages 18-84 yr who received placebo, 1000 IU vitamin D3, 1000 IU vitamin D2, or 500 IU vitamin D2 plus 500 IU vitamin D3 daily for 11 wk at the end of the winter.
Sixty percent of the healthy adults were vitamin D deficient at the start of the study. The circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (mean+/-sd) increased to the same extent in the groups that received 1000 IU daily as vitamin D2 (baseline 16.9+/-10.5 ng/ml; 11 wk 26.8+/-9.6 ng/ml), vitamin D3 (baseline 19.6+/-11.1 ng/ml; 11 wk 28.9+/-11.0 ng/ml), or a combination of 500 IU vitamin D2 and 500 IU vitamin D3 (baseline 20.2+/-10.4 ng/ml; 11 wk 28.4+/-7.7 ng/ml). The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels did not change in the group that received 1000 IU vitamin D2 daily. The 1000 IU dose of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 did not raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-deficient subjects above 30 ng/ml.
A 1000 IU dose of vitamin D2 daily was as effective as 1000 IU vitamin D3 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and did not negatively influence serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Therefore, vitamin D2 is equally as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining 25-hydroxyvitamin D status.

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    • "In further analyses, we examined the exposure as a binary variable describing an increase in 25(OH)D of !10 ng/mL during the year leading to hospitalization. We chose the !10 ng/mL based on studies by others that show that serum 25(OH)D levels increase by 10 ng/ml over 4 weeks for patients on daily 1000 IU vitamin D 3 [23] and our prior work showing differential outcomes with 25(OH)D levels categorized as <10 ng/mL, 10e19.9 ng/mL, 20e29.9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-hospital vitamin D status may be a modifiable risk factor for all-cause mortality among hospitalized patients. To examine the association between increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels during the year before hospitalization and risk of 30-day all-cause mortality after hospital admission. Retrospective cohort study. Two Boston teaching hospitals. We studied 4344 adults hospitalized between 1993 and 2011 who had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured at least twice within 7-365 days before the index hospitalization. None. The exposure of interest was change in pre-hospital serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to describe how 30-day mortality differed with changes in pre-hospital 25(OH)D concentrations. Additionally, the odds of 30-day mortality in patients with pre-hospital 25(OH)D increases of ≥10 ng/mL was compared to that of patients with increases of <10 ng/mL. In a mixed-effect logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, race, type (medical/surgical), Deyo-Charlson Index, creatinine and hematocrit, 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 8% (95%CI: 1-15) lower for each 10 ng/mL increase in pre-hospital 25(OH)D (P = 0.025) compared with the 30-day all-cause mortality rate in the entire cohort. In an adjusted logistic regression model, absolute changes of ≥10 ng/mL in patients with initial 25(OH)D concentrations < 20 ng/mL (n = 1944) decreased the odds of 30-day all-cause mortality by 48% (adjusted OR 0.52; 95%CI 0.30-0.93; P = 0.026) compared to patients with changes of <10 ng/mL. In patients with initial 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL, subsequent improvements in vitamin D status before hospitalization are associated with decreased odds of 30-day all-cause mortality after hospital admission. A causal relation may not be inferred from this observational study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2015.03.020 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, it was not surprising that vitamin D3 has been reported to be superior to vitamin D2 in terms of bioavailability and maintaining the vitamin D status by the majority of studies (Trang et al., 1998; Armas et al., 2004; Romagnoli et al., 2008; Glendenning et al., 2009; Heaney et al., 2011; Lehmann et al., 2013). Only one study reported that the two vitamers were essentially equipotent (Holick et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient vitam
    Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:248. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00248 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "The same dose of vitamin D 2 was as effective as vitamin D 3 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and did not negatively influence serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 levels. Therefore, vitamin D 2 is equally as effective as vitamin D 3 in maintaining 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (Holick et al., 2008). Vitamin D deficiency has long been known to cause rickets (Rajakumar, 2003), but inadequate levels of vitamin D has more recently been implicated in a wide variety of diseases (Bischoff-Ferrari , Giovannucci, Willett, Dietrich, & Dowson-Hughes, 2006), including some types of cancer (Garland, Gorham, Mohr, & Garland, 2009; Mohr, 2009), cardiovascular disease (Holick, 2004; Zittermann, 2006), diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and others (Gesek & Desmond, 2008; Janssens et al., 2009; Pappa, Bern, Kamin, & Grand, 2008; Shoenfeld, Amital, & Shoenfeld, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and rapid method has been developed for the isolation and determination of vitamin D2 in fortified milk samples by HPLC. The advantage of the proposed method is that sample preparation time is reduced and both crystalline and encapsulated forms of vitamin D2 can be estimated. The developed protocol involves a few extraction steps and requires less amounts of reagents. The HPLC separation of vitamin D2 was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column with photo diode array detector at 254nm. Some additional steps were required for extraction of microencapsulated vitamin D2 for breaking down coating material in comparison to crystalline vitamin D2. The recovery of vitamin D2 in fortified toned milk by the proposed method ranged from 96.46% to 99.05%. Non significant degradation was observed in vitamin D2 during seven days storage and also under light exposure (1485 lux) for 32h.
    Food Chemistry 05/2014; 151:225-30. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.085 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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